Forex Trading Hours in India - Forex Education

RBI & how its policies can start to affect the market

Disclaimer: This DD is to help start forming a market view as per RBI announcements. Also a gentle reminder that fundamentals play out over a longer time frame than intraday. The authors take no responsiblity for your yolos.
With contributions by Asli Bakchodi, Bran OP & dragononweed!

What is the RBI?
RBI is the central bank of India. They are one of the key players who affect India’s economic trajectory. They control currency supply, banking rules and more. This means that it is not a bank in which retailers or corporates can open an account with. Instead they are a bank for bankers and the Government of India.
Their functions can be broadly classified into 6.
· Monetary authority
· Financial supervisor for financial system
· Issuer of currency
· Manages Foreign exchange
· Bankers bank
· Banker to the government
This DD will take a look at each of these functions. It will be followed by a list of rates the RBI sets, and how changes in them can affect the market.
1. Monetary Authority
One of RBI’s functions is to achieve the goal of “Price Stability” in the economy. This essentially means achieving an inflation rate that is within a desired limit.
A monetary policy committee (MPC) decides on the desired inflation rate and its limits through majority vote of its 6 members, in consultation with the GoI.
The current inflation target for RBI is as follows
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI): 4%
Upper Limit: 6%
Lower Limit: 2%
An increase in CPI means less purchasing power. Generally speaking, if inflation is too high, the public starts cutting down on spending, leading to a negative impact on the markets. And vice versa. Lower inflation leads to more purchasing power, more spending, more investments leading to a positive impact on the market.
2. Financial Supervisor For Financial System
A financial system consists of financial markets (Capital market, money market, forex market etc.), financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, NBFC etc) & financial assets (currencies, bills, bonds etc)
RBI supervises this entire system and lays down the rules and regulations for it. It can also use further ‘Selective Credit Controls’ to regulate banks.
3. Issues of currency
The RBI is responsible for the printing of currency notes. RBI is free to print as much as it wants as long as the minimum reserve of Rs 200 Cr (Gold 112 Cr) is maintained. The RBI has total assets or a balance size sheet of Rs. 51 trillion (April 2020). (1 Trillion = 1 Lakh crore)
India’s current reserves mean our increase in currency circulation is well managed.
4. Manages Foreign Exchange
RBI regulates all of India’s foreign exchange transactions. It is the custodian of all of foreign currencies in India. It allows for the foreign exchange value of the rupee to be controlled. RBI also buy and sell rupees in the foreign exchange market at its discretion.
In case of any currency movement, a country’s central bank can directly intervene to either push the currency up, as India has been doing, or to keep it artificially low, as the Chinese central bank does. To push up a currency, a central bank can sell dollars, which is the global reserve currency, or the currency against which all others are measured. To push down a currency, a central bank can buy dollars.
The RBI deciding this depends on the import/export and financial health of the country. Generally a weaker rupee means imports are more expensive, but are favourable for exports. And a stronger rupee means imports are cheaper but are unfavourable for exports.
A weaker rupee can make foreign investment more lucrative driving up FII. A stronger rupee can have an adverse effect of FII investing in markets.
5. Banker’s Bank
Every bank has to maintain a certain amount of reserve with the RBI. A certain percentage of a bank’s liabilities (anywhere between 3-15% as decided by RBI) has to be maintained in this account. This is called the Cash Reserve Ratio. This is determined by the MPC during the monetary policy review (which happens every six weeks at present).
It lends money from this reserve to other banks if they are short on cash, but generally, it is seen as a last resort move. Banks are encouraged to meet their shortfalls of cash from other resources.
6. Banker to the government
RBI is the entity that carries out ALL monetary transactions on behalf of the Government. It holds custody of the cash balance of the Government, gives temporary loans to both central and state governments and manages the debt operations of the central Government, through instruments of debt and the interest rates associated with them - like bonds.
The different rates set & managed by RBI
- Repo rate
The rate at which RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks is called as Repo Rate.
Banks sometimes need money for emergency or to maintain the SLR and CRR (explained below). They borrow this from RBI but have to pay some interest on it. The interest that is to be paid on the amount to the RBI is called as Repo Rate.
It does not function like a normal loan but acts like a forward contract. Banks have to provide collateral like government bonds, T-bills etc. Repo means Repurchase Option is the true meaning of Repo an agreement where the bank promises to repurchase these government securities after the repo period is over.
As a tool to control inflation, RBI increases the Repo Rate making it more expensive for banks to borrow from the RBI with a view to restrict availability of money. Exact opposite stance shall be taken in case of deflationary environment.
The change of repo rate is aimed to affect the flow of money in the economy. An increase in repo rate decreases the flow of money in the economy, while the decrease in repo rate increases the flow of money in the economy. RBI by changing these rates shows its stance to the economy at large whether they prioritize growth or inflation.
- Reverse Repo Rate
The rate at which the RBI is willing to borrow from the Banks is called as Reverse Repo Rate. If the RBI increases the reverse repo rate, it means that the RBI is willing to offer lucrative interest rate to banks to park their money with the RBI. Banks in this case agree to resell government securities after reverse repo period.
Generally, an increase in reverse repo rate that banks will have a higher incentive to park their money with RBI. It decreases liquidity, affecting the market in a negative manner. Decrease in reverse repo rate increases liquidity affecting the market in a positive manner.
Both the repo rate and reverse repo rate fall under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility tools for RBI.
- Cash reserve ratio (CRR)
Banks in India are required to deposit a specific percentage of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in the form of CASH with the RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. These reserves will not be in circulation at any point in time.
For example, if a bank had a NDTL (like current Account, Savings Account and Fixed Deposits) of 100Cr and the CRR is at 3%, it would have to keep 3Cr as Cash reserve ratio to the RBI. This amount earns no interest.
Currently it is at 3%. A lower cash ratio means banks can deposit just a lower amount and use the remaining money leading to higher liquidity. This translates to more money to invest which is seen as positive for the market. Inversely, a higher cash ratio equates to lower liquidity which translates to a negative market sentiment.
Thus, the RBI uses the CRR to control excess money flow and regulate liquidity in the economy.
- Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR)
Banks in India have to keep a certain percentage of their net demand and time liabilities WITH THEMSELVES. And this can be in the form of liquid assets like gold and government securities, not just cash. A lot of banks keep them in government bonds as they give a decent interest.
The current SLR ratio of 18.25%, which means that for every Rs.100 deposited in a bank, it has to invest Rs.18.50 in any of the asset classes approved by RBI.
A low SLR means higher levels of loans to the private sector. This boosts investment and acts as a positive sentiment for the market. Conversely a high SLR means tighter levels of credit and can cause a negative effect on the market.
Essentially, the RBI uses the SLR to control ease of credit in the economy. It also ensures that the banks maintain a certain level of funds to meet depositor’s demands instead of over liquidation.
- Bank Rate
Bank rate is a rate at which the Reserve Bank of India provides the loan to commercial banks without keeping any security. There is no agreement on repurchase that will be drawn up or agreed upon with no collateral as well. This is different from repo rate as loans taken with repo rate are taken on the basis of securities. Bank rate hence is higher than the repo rate.
Currently the bank rate is 4.25%. Since bank rate is essentially a loan interest rate like repo rate, it affects the market in similar ways.
- Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)
This is the minimum rate below which the banks are not allowed to lend. Raising this rate, makes loans more expensive, drying up liquidity, affecting the market in a negative way. Similarly, lower MCLR rates will bring in high liquidity, affecting the market in a positive way.
MCLR is a varying lending rate instead of a single rate according to the kind of loans. Currently, the MCLR rate is between 6.65% - 7.15%
- Marginal Standing facility
Marginal Standing Facility is the interest rate at which a depository institution (generally banks) lends or borrows funds with another depository institution in the overnight market. Overnight market is the part of financial market which offers the shortest term loans. These loans have to be repaid the next day.
MSF can be used by a bank after it exhausts its eligible security holdings for borrowing under other options like the Liquidity adjustment facilities.
The MSF would be a penal rate for banks and the banks can borrow funds by pledging government securities within the limits of the statutory liquidity ratio.
The current rate stands at 4.25%. The effect it has on the market is synonymous with the other lending rates such as repo rate & bank rate.
- Loan to value ratio
The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk that financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, loan assessments with high LTV ratios are considered higher risk loans.
Basically, if a companies preferred form of collateral rises in value and leads the market (growing faster than the market), then the company will see the loans that it signed with higher LTV suddenly reduce (but the interest rate remains the same).
Let’s consider an example of gold as a collateral. Consider a loan was approved with gold as collateral. The market price for gold is Rs 2000/g, and for each g, a loan of Rs 1500 was given. (The numbers are simplified for understanding). This would put LTV of the loan at 1500/2000 = 0.75. Since it is a substantial LTV, say the company priced the loan at 20% interest rate.
Now the next year, the price of gold rose to Rs 3000/kg. This would mean that the LTV of the current loan has changed to 0.5 but the company is not obligated to change the interest rate. This means that even if the company sees a lot of defaults, it is fairly protected by the unexpected surge in the underlying asset. Moreover, since the underlying asset is more valuable, default rates for the loans goes down as people are more protective of the collateral they have placed.
The same scenario for gold is happening right now and is the reason for gold backed loan providers like MUTHOOT to hit ATHs as gold is leading the economy right now. Also, these in these scenarios, it also enables companies to offer additional loan on same gold for those who are interested Instead of keeping the loan amount same most of the gold loan companies.
Based on above, we can see that as RBI changes LTV for certain assets, we are in a position to identify potential institutions that could get a good Quarterly result and try to enter it early.
Conclusion
The above rates contain the ways in the Central Bank manages the monetary policy, growth and inflation in the country.
Its impact on Stock market is often seen when these rates are changed, they act as triggers for the intraday positions on that day. But overall, the outlook is always maintained on how the RBI sees the country is doing, and knee jerk reactions are limited to intraday positions. The long term stance is always well within the limits of the outlook the big players in the market are expecting.
The important thing to keep in mind is that the problems facing the economy needn’t be uni-dimensional. Problems with inflation, growth, liquidity, currency depreciation all can come together, for which the RBI will have to play a balancing role with all it powers to change these rates and the forex reserve. So the effect on the market needs to be given more thought than simply extrapolated as ‘rates go low, markets go up’.
But understanding these individual effects of these rates allows you to start putting together the puzzle of how and where the market and the economy could go.
submitted by crackedminds333 to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Since I angered some Chads on /r/investing here's why I think China is the next "big short".

Fellow idiots,
I posted this comment which seems to have angered the highly sophisticated /investing community. I don't mind being downvoted but at least provide some counter arguments if you're going to be a dick. So in the pursuit of truth and tendies for all, I have prepared some juicy due diligence (DD) for WSB Capital on why China is on the verge of collapse.
TL;DR at the bottom.
Point 1: Defaults in China have been accelerating aggressively, and through July 2019, 274 real estate developers filed for bankruptcy, up 50% over last year. A bonus? Many Chinese state controlled banks have been filing for bankruptcy as well. Just google "china bank defaults" or something similar. Notice how many articles there are from 2019? When the banking system fails, everything else usually fails too.
Point 2: The RMB has depreciated significantly. Last time this happened, in 2015-2016, there was a significant outflow of foreign invested capital. According to the IIF, outflows reached $725bn due to the currency depreciation.. This time is different why again? I have heard some arguments why there will be less outflow this time, but I struggle to buy them.
Point 3: Despite wanting to operate like a developed economy, China still has not been able to shrug off the middle income trap. Their GDP per capita is comparable to countries we normally associated with being developing/emerging markets. Tangentially related to point 10.
Point 4: China is an export-dependent economy, with about 20% of their exports contributing towards their GDP. Less exporting means less GDP, less consumption (because businesses make less money, they pay people less, who in turn spend less), which has a greater effect on GDP than any declines in exports would have at face value. Guess what? Chinese exports dropped 1% in August, and August imports dropped -1%, marking the 5th month this year of negative m/m export growth..
Point 5: Business confidence has been weak in China - declining at a sustained pace worse than in 2015. When businesses feel worse, they spend less, invest less in fixed assets, hire less until they feel better about the future. Which takes me to my next point.
Point 6: Fixed asset investment in China has declined 30 percentage points since 2010. While rates are low, confidence is also low, and they are sitting on a record amount of leverage, which means they simply will not be able to afford additional investment.
Point 7: They are an extremely levered economy with a total debt to GDP ratio of over 300%, per the IIF, which also accounts for roughly 15% of global total fucking debt. Here's an interview with someone else talking about it too.
Point 8: Their central bank recently introduced a metric fuckton of stimulus into their economy. This will encourage more borrowing....add fuel to the fire. Moreover, the stimulus will mechanically likely weaken the RMB even more, which could lead to even more foreign outflows, which are already happening, see next point.
Point 9: Fucking LOTS of outflows this year. As of MAY, according to this joint statement, around 40% of US companies are relocating some portion of their supply chains away from mainland. This was in May. Since May, we have seen even more tariffs imposed, why WOULD companies want to stay when exporting to the US is a lot more expensive now?
Point 10: Ignoring ALL of the points above, we are in a global synchronized slowdown, with many emerging market central banks cutting rates - by the most in a decade. Investors want safety, and safe-haven denominated assets are where we have seen a lot of flocking into recently. Things that can be considered safe-havens have good liquidity, a relatively stable economy, and a predictable political environment.
Would love to hear opposing thoughts if you think China is a good buy. I am not against China, nor any other country for that matter, but I am against losing money (yes, wrong sub etc.), and I can not rationalize why anyone would be putting in a bid.
TL;DR: the bubble is right in front of your face, impending doom ahead, short everything, fuck /investing.
Edit, since you 'tards keep asking me how to trade this, there are a few trades that come to mind:
*not investment advice*
submitted by ComicalEconomical to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

The Daily Autist 03/31/20 For The Autists, By An Autist

The Daily Autist

03/31/20

TLDR Of The News To Inform Your Moves
Dumb bulls and gay bears, welcome. Robinhood falsely gave me a PDT warning so I can’t buy or sell anything until it’s fixed. Until 04/03 I’m effectively just a spectator as I can’t close any position I open. My QQQ and SPY options will expire worthless when the market closes due to not being able to close after opening positions to sell later in the day yesterday. So get ready for a bitter one. (I know RH is shit, but everywhere else requires minimum balances or an arbitrary pass/fail determination so it is what it is)

WSB Summary

Y’all can look forward to this being on the news in a day or two, or even longer if he ends up going to court over it. If ever you want to get back at a shitty email, the best thing to do is post it to Reddit rather than reply bitterly.
My broker (Questrade) wants me to sign an NDA saying I won't talk shit about them after offering me $1200 USD as compensation for losing $50000 from outages : wallstreetbets
A meme sums up the end of last week and Monday better than any article.
All it takes is a printer to save the day : wallstreetbets
This gentleman will insert a beer in his ass if there’s a -10% day “anytime soon.” So roughly two weeks. What a total retard and I salute him.
I will butt chug a Corona if we see another -10% day anytime soon : wallstreetbets

Corona Dump

Nothing says “If you help with the pandemic you will be punished,” quite like going viral because of a difficult moment then having your house blow away.
https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/30/us/arkansas-tornado-destroys-doctors-home-trnd/index.htmlAMZN fired the worker who spoke out about their policies. I would say puts on AMZN but since bad news = good news last the last week amazon should break 2k again very soon.
https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/30/amazon-fires-staten-island-coronavirus-strike-leader-chris-smalls.html
Sections of GE that is still open and making other random medical and electrical shit are striking to divert their energy to ventilators. Kudos to them fr. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/coronavirus-general-electric-workers-ventilators-work-stoppage-labor-massachusetts-a9436881.html
It’s almost like having healthcare be a for-profit industry means people will try to profit off medical treatments. I hate this “now I'm woke but in 3 months I won’t be,” garbage people are doing for clicks.
https://www.propublica.org/article/taxpayers-paid-millions-to-design-a-low-cost-ventilator-for-a-pandemic-instead-the-company-is-selling-versions-of-it-overseas-
Killing our medical workers due to negligence and worry for the market. I recommend reading this when the market closes as it’s a little long and not related to the market other than warning things will continue to get worse rather than better for the near future stability wise.
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/927811?nlid=134774_3901&src=wnl_newsalrt_200330_MSCPEDIT&uac=24257DJ&impID=2329672&faf=1

Business/Finance

Now that Canada passed the extra stimulus for its citizens Air Canada laid off its employees. This is how it was supposed to work for the US. Still, a sign that if not artificially kept afloat by the government these airlines are fucked.
https://www.thestandard.com.hk/breaking-news/section/2/144720/Air-Canada-lays-off-16,500-staff-due-to-virus
Turns out the two most rapidly growing and advancing countries will continue to grow and advance while the rest of the world falls backward. 200 IQ play by China
https://m.economictimes.com/news/economy/indicators/world-economy-will-go-into-recession-with-likely-exception-of-india-china-united-nations/articleshow/74905696.cms
China is reopening manufacturing. They have enough people to let the virus do it’s thing and not care. They don’t have audited medical numbers. This is bad for short term puts.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-economy-pmi-factory-official/china-factory-activity-unexpectedly-expands-but-economy-unable-to-shake-off-virus-shock-idUSKBN21I05S
USD continues to be king. What a time to be alive.
https://www.reuters.com/article/global-forex/forex-dollar-gains-yuan-steady-after-china-pmi-in-cautious-trade-idUSL4N2BO1NJ
Futures continue their bullish trend with another 1% gain overnight. Until there’s another manic day of 6%+ it’s looking the bulls are still in control in a stable manner.
https://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/stock-futures-trade-cautiously-higher-after-mondays-rally
Premarket 261-263 all morning. What is this boring stable shit? 261.93 at time of posting (06:50 EST)

NostraLosses Prediction:

Keep buying short term calls until there’s a significant signal otherwise. All the DD in the world gets wiped out by a heavy enough BRRRRRRRt. I got some far OTM calls to hedge my put bets Friday EOD and Monday and if it weren’t for the false PDT warning I would have almost made back the losses to be back to even. So try not to go full retard on the puts, and if you can afford it, don’t use Robinhood.

Post your thoughts, questions, complaints, compliments, and plays in the comments.

Edited for formatting errors due to importing from Grammarly.
submitted by AvocadosAreMeh to wallstreetbets2 [link] [comments]

Forex Trading

We Are Well-controlled and Safe
Your Forex representative (Fx Broker) will hold your assets. Along these lines, it is significant you confirm it is protected. Forex Birds effectively goes around this worry as we are enlisted with and appropriately managed by the Europian Securities and Investments Commission. Subsequently, you can be certain that we will consistently guard you and your assets! forex india, forex representative india, forex dealer in india, fx merchant, about forex exchanging
We Genuinely Want Our Clients to Succeed
Truly, we need to see you succeed. When you open a record with us, we will hold your capital in trust and show you how to exchange. We will work with you until you succeed. Our exchanging stages are responsive, our execution speed is quick, the business sectors we spread are wide, and we give you instruments that will assist you with limiting your misfortunes and amplify your benefits. We need to see you succeed in light of the fact that as our customer, your prosperity is our pride! forex india, forex representative india, forex specialist in india, fx intermediary, about forex exchanging
We Are A Broker of Established Repute
Our notoriety has been affirmed. We have been around for long and about us our customers from everywhere throughout the world have only positive comments. We offer just a market-driving, industry-standard business administration, and we realize you would not have any desire to preclude yourself from claiming it. forex india, forex intermediary india, forex merchant in india, fx specialist, about forex exchanging
Why Trade With Us
Positive Trading Conditions
Our exchanging stages are easy to understand. They were created with the sole point of fulfilling the necessities of our customers. Thus, they are responsive and high instinctive, making them simple to explore. Furthermore; the execution speed is quick and with them, exchanging will get consistent and easy for you. forex india, forex dealer india, forex merchant in india
Various Financial Markets Covered
Monetary market s are brimming with circumstances. Therefore, the a greater amount of them a merchant offers, the better for the dealer. At Forex Birds, we comprehend this best so we generally try to extend our item contributions. From various money sets to CFDs, wares, and even cryptographic forms of money, with over <10,000> tradable items, we have you secured. You simply bring your desire while we give you your need. forex india, forex dealer india, forex intermediary in india, fx broker Complete Learning Resources
At Forex Birds, we are truly dedicated to our clients' prosperity. We comprehend that without them, there won't be us. In this way, we work with the plan to make them master brokers who will exchange for long, who won't simply exchange for some time and quit. Henceforth, we give exhaustive learning assets as explainer articles, instructional exercises, recordings, and online courses — all to guarantee that they succeed! forex india, forex agent india, forex intermediary in india, fx broker Productive Customer Support Service
You won't value the importance of a dealer's client service administration until you run into any glitch or have any issue. In any case, at Forex Birds, we don't sit tight for you to have either before we give a client service administration — an effective one at that — for you. Regardless of any inquiry you have or issue to determine, our client assistance administration is accessible all day, every day to take care of your needs. forex india, forex intermediary india, forex specialist in india, fx dealer, fx merchant, about forex exchanging,
Sound Money Management Techniques
At Forex Birds, it is our delight to see our customers exchanging easily as well as prevailing at it. What's more, measurements have uncovered that most dealers that quit do so in light of the fact that they get scorched because of helpless cash the board works on (Trading conditions). Forex Birds, thusly, encourages you deal with your cash and hazard through its arrangements, for example, stop-misfortune and cutoff orders. With us, your capital is sheltered, your benefits are ensured, and you can be a merchant for long.
forex india, forex representative india, forex specialist in india, fx intermediary, fx dealer, about forex exchanging
submitted by forexbirds to u/forexbirds [link] [comments]

Concerns on DeFi

Hello,
Just wanted to share some of my legitimate concerns around decentralised finance with the broader community. To be quite clear - I am a huge fan of Ethereum and DeFi and believe this could lead to the future of finance. However, I do worry if there is a circle jerk within the community that could lead to a lack of adoption in the coming months. I will try and keep this as short as possible. By all means, do understand I am coming from the pov of sharing constructive criticism and not dissing on the efforts of those building.
If you are solving for these problems in particular, please ping me and I'd love to talk further with you
  1. On-ramps The largest problem for much of the developing world is the fact that while DAI can without doubt give dollar exposure, acquiring them is quite a difficult task. In fact if DAI demand goes up substantially in a region, it could have premiums of upto 25% which makes it a bad on-ramp tool without necessary liquidity in place. (check Wazir X p2p USDT rates in India for context). This problem is not endemic to DAI alone but is applicable to stable tokens of all kinds. With regional regulations in nations like Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Phillipines, Malaysia and India not being clear on stable tokens in particular, it becomes an uphill task for developers to build on it. More importantly, it becomes less appealing for the average individual to use. Now typically this wouldnt matter if the point of DeFi was to be a niche project aimed at a small community. However, DeFi has the power to be the first mass market blockchain tool for the world. Consider it to be the "e-mail" or "napster" moment for blockchain based applications. IF we are to scale then on-ramps and off-ramps need to be solved for. This can happen only and if the community begins engaging with regional regulators and exchanges begin providing solutions. In an ideal world, acquiring stable tokens should be as easy as venmo'ing someone $10 dollar and receiving say $9.90 (1% fee) in Incento (incento.io seems interesting, not shilling but do check them out!)
  2. Incumbent Efficiency In order for a system to scale past a certain point, the value add it brings needs to be considerably higher than the incumbent. Depending on the size of the remittance market, there exists multiple payments and wire transfer corridors set up by startups today to solve for quick transfers. In fact during times when a blockchain like those of Ethereum's or Bitcoin's are clogged - transferwise can prove to be a cheaper, better alternative than tokens. This is not to diss on the fact that decentralisation and immutability has a price attached to them, but for the average user today alternatives are far better than token based products. The challenge when it comes to scaling - especially towards L2 is whether products can be incrementally better than their incumbents in exchange for some trade offs (eg: relative centralisation in lightning for minimal fees and quicker confirmation). Today's DeFi apps have to make a call between being ideological and efficient because it seems there is a price attached to ideology and retail users aren't willing to pay that price.
  3. Slippage Much props to Kyber and Uniswap for solving for this on most DeFi apps but there remains challenges in how settlements for defi instruments today happen. As the scale of volume on products like DyDx and Nuo increase and the expected accuracy at which trade settlements are anticipated to be limited to, there will come a point in time where traditional market-makers will have to enter the system. At $500 million the DeFi space's largest traders constantly reel from price slippages and a lack of liquidity. How can we scale to $10 billion or $1 trillion without the kind of liquidity that could instill confidence in large whales. In order to solve this, there will come a point in time where hedge funds and dark pool service providers from traditional markets begin targetting DeFi instruments. The community will likely see this as an all out assault on the principles DeFi has been built upon but to be honest, this will be a quintessential requirement for the space to grow. We are seeing an early variant of this already with the likes of Cred raising $50 million to re-issue as debt (yes, not entirely DeFi) or with MakerDAO having VC partners that come from traditional backgrounds. Even in the case of products like Dharma and compound, the market-makers are hedge funds. We will see a convergence of traditional market products and DeFi soon. That will be an exciting phase imo.
  4. Product-Market Fit Debt is one of the oldest financial innovations in the markets. Quite literally. Some of the first ever tablets recorded debt obligations and as such have been quintessential to the growth of human civilisation. MakerDAO's proposition of issuing token backed debt is by all means revolutionary but in order to see true scale, DeFi has to grow beyond the individuals that can give assets as collateral. I reckon there will be a new layer of growth for DeFi soon that will be powered with open-data and AI. One where an individual's credit worthiness could be checked with the individual's permission on basis of on-chain tx activity and self sovereign identity. I also see a market for AI based lending rate predictions and forex management by central banks. Autonomous agents can realistically analyse tx's in and out of a country, account for macro-economic indicators and optimise internal lending rates and foreign currency reserves. Ofcourse it is too early for any of this to take place but within the next decade our markets will be far more (i) closer due to globalisation and (ii) automated due to improvements in AI. DeFi is all well and good but if we are going to beat the same old drums of economic instruments that were created thousands of years back, there may be no real value proposition here. LsDAI, rDAI, CDAI, DAI... are all interesting but the average user sees no value yet. Which makes me wonder if we are sitting around patting each other's back before we see something productive (a unicorn from the DeFi ecosystem perhaps?)
  5. Scale 4.5 billion. That's the number of unbanked individuals that can be catered to with an L2 payments solution powered by Ethereum. Challenges? On-ramp, storage of private keys, user education and bloody hell - marketing and user education. Emphasis on the last 2 because I feel not much focus is given on it. We can no longer build and hope the markets come. We are in an era of Zombie startups where startups with north of $100 million+ valuations in Mcap, that raised north of $10million in 2017 from ICOs are sitting on ~1000 users a month. People think the alts blood seepage is done but it is likely that that bleeding wont stop until we find users. And when we do find users, we cant expect them to be using a gazillion tokens, each with weird token economics and even more complex functioning to be using them. Standardising of token interactions through wallets and interoperability will solve for these challenges but its time we asked what are the biggest problems DeFi can solve today? Here are some hints.. NFT based Income share agreements -Non collateralised debt for gig economy corporations that are registered as DAOs -DAO treasury management -Forex off-ramps for tourists (P2P) More on these later..
Just wanted to share my $0.02.
submitted by WiseAcanthisitta5 to ethfinance [link] [comments]

Economic growth under Modi government

DISCLAIMER- THIS IS NOT A POST BY ME. I AM MERELY SHARING THE POST BY COPY PASTING IT HERE.

SOURCE OF THIS ENTIRE ARTICLE Quora Article by SAKET KUMAR

Original Article has all pictures and graphs for you to refer to. This post only has the text. The text in Bold are hyperlinks in the original article which not here.

I am trained as a Scientist so first I have to present credible relevant data before I can convince anyone. First I will answer the question with 1 picture and explain 3 parameters.
The below image is not fake. They are NASA satellite images of India taken during night time.

As you can see one on the left is from 2012 and on the right is from 2016. The research paper written by Luis R. Martinez from University of Chicago shows that increased use of electricity at night is parallel to country’s economic growth. Further he states in that paper authoritarian countries like China and Russia are fudging their GDP anywhere from 15 to 30% every year. You can read the research paper here How Much Should We Trust the Dictator's GDP Growth Estimates? or you can read Washington Post article .
Now the 3 Parameters
Modi became PM on May 26th 2014. In October 2014 IMF came out with a report which said** India set to become $2 trillion economy in 2014: IMF** . India’s GDP was ~$1.9 Trillion when Modi became PM. Fast forward now the same IMF says India’s GDP is $3.2 Trillion . Here is the snap shot directly from IMF website.

**Note: IMF always slightly understates GDP to account for any observational bias and inaccuracies. This is GDP estimate from a totally neutral source so you can’t say this is BJP propaganda or call it as fake.
→Conclusion from GDP data: Modi government added $1.2 Trillion to GDP in 5 years. India reached $1 Trillion GDP in 2007 India had joined trillion-dollar club in 2007 so even after 7 years of being in power UPA couldn’t even make India $2 Trillion economy. When Atalji left office in 2004 India had $700 billion GDP according to World bank report . So UPA in 10 years added $1.2 Trillion in GDP but Modiji did the same in 5 years.
Inflation: Inflation in Economic terms is general increase in prices and fall in purchasing power parity. As you know when there is increase in inflation prices rise on many goods and services and your purchasing power decreases. Just because prices increased on goods and services doesn’t mean your boss is going to increase your salary unless you are a Central government employee where you get Dearness allowance - Wikipedia to compensate for high inflation. Let’s look at inflation from 1998 :

Inflation directly affects the common man. When Atalji came to power in 1998 inflation was through the roof at 13.5%. He cracked down on inflation and brought it down to ~4% and maintained the same through out his Premiership. This is a PM who cared for the common man. Now look at the graph after 2004. UPA always maintained high inflation which on average was above 8%+ which emptied people’s pockets faster than they could spend. Just see how the graph dips when Modi became PM in 2014. Keeping inflation down is one of the paramount tasks of any BJP Prime Minister.
Important Note: GDP growth in some ways is tied to inflation. If you have a GDP growth rate of 10% with 10% inflation then it’s no use. It’s better to have GDP growth of 5% with low inflation rate of below 2%. Lower the inflation the better for the economy as long as it is not in negative. UPA always boasts about high GDP but never ever mention inflation rate during their term because they know they will be caught with pants down. Some people can see through the BS of UPA’s high GDP growth. GDP surged under UPA because it purchased growth at a high price .
→Conclusion from Inflation data: Inflation was always low under Atalji and Modiji. No Economist can deny that. No amount of propaganda from Congress can deny this brutal truth. In between all the lies even the scammer, fraud and corrupt Chiddu accepts it** High inflation was a big red in the UPA-2 report card: P Chidambaram**
Forex Reserves: When Atalji became PM in 1998 India’s forex reserves was ~$30 billion . When he left office in 2004 it had jumped to $114 billion . When Modi became PM on May 26th 2014 the forex reserves was $303 billion . Now as of March 13th 2020 forex reserves is** Forex reserves surge by $5.69 billion to reach record $487.23 bn** .
***Note: It is exactly because of our lower forex reserves we had to approach IMF in 1991. In return for IMF bail out India had to open up it’s markets for outside investment. If India doesn’t have enough forex then Economy comes to a standstill as India will lack the capability to pay for external goods and services which it imports. We import 90% of our Oil from abroad. If there is no oil then there is no economy.
→Conclusion from Forex data: Atalji as PM increased forex from $30 billion to $114 billion in 6 years during Pokran sanctions and unfavorable economic climate. Atalji’s government added $114B - $30B = $84 billion into forex. At the end of UPA tenure forex was $303 billion. So UPA in 10 years added $303B - $114B = $189 billion. Now how much did Modi Sarkar added in 5 years? $487B - $303B = $184 billion. As you can see just like GDP what UPA did in 10 years Modiji government has done the same for forex in 5 years. And we still have 4 more years to go. I hope India reaches $1 Trillion in forex which can help India project power. None of the countries who are barking on CAA will bark again when you have a war chest of Trillion dollars.
Final Conclusion: I have only added 3 parameters to my answer since the question is asking everything to be in 1 picture which is not possible. But anyone can tell you simple truth if Modiji hasn’t done anything since he became PM then all the above parameters would be worse off than how UPA left them in 2014. Those 3 are very very important parameters for India. If India is performing worse like some morons who are predicting apocalypse for Indian economy are saying then the data is not backing them up.
submitted by DeadBodiesinMyArse to IndiaSpeaks [link] [comments]

Some news you may have missed out on part 134.

-Rupee continues to recover, gains Rs4.16 in four months
The Pakistani rupee has maintained a gradual uptrend against the US dollar since the beginning of current fiscal year in July and is anticipated to gain more ground in the remaining eight months amid expectations of increase in foreign currency inflows.
The rupee gradually strengthened Rs4.16 or 2.60% in the past around four months to Rs155.88 to the US dollar in the inter-bank market on Friday, according to the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). “The rupee may recover to 145 to the greenback by June 30, 2020,” Forex Association of Pakistan (FAP) President Malik Bostan projected while talking to The Express Tribune.
Further: -In a positive development, Pakistani Rupee hits highest level of four months against US dollar
The Pakistani rupee has shown recovery against the US dollar as the US currency reached the lowest level in four months.
-ExxonMobil to help build LNG terminal in Pakistan
After getting a liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply contract from private-sector consumers, US energy giant ExxonMobil is planning to build the third LNG terminal in Karachi as a joint-venture partner.
Some time ago, ExxonMobil, in collaboration with Pakistan’s exploration and production companies, drilled an offshore well to search for hydrocarbon reserves in the Arabian Sea. However, the effort could not prove successful. Now, in a new venture with Energas consortium, the US firm is going to invest in setting up an LNG terminal in Pakistan.
-Pakistan's Hindu community celebrates Diwali today in a renovated temple reopened by the Pakistan government after 72 years
he country’s Hindu community is celebrating the annual religious festival of Diwali. The religious festivities are expected to take place in Shawala Teja Singh Temple, located in Sialkot, after 72 years.
All preparations for the upcoming festival have been completed. The festival of Diwali is being seen as more of a cultural than a religious one as people from other faiths will celebrate alongside members of the Hindu community.
The temple, where the festivities will take place, was closed down in 1947. The Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) and certain members of the Hindu community decided to open the temple a few months ago, after which the renewal and renovation work had begun. Now, for the first time, this temple is going to celebrate a religious ceremony.
-Tax Returns Filed Per Day in 2019 Have Increased by 127 Percent: FBR Chairman
Federal Board of Revenue’s (FBR) Chairman Syed Shabbar Zaidi has announced that on average, tax returns filed per day in 2019 have risen by 127 percent compared to last year. In a Twitter post, Zaidi shared details of the tax returns filed so far. As per the records, the number of tax returns filed in 2019 till October 25 stands at 918,027, as compared to 585,209 tax returns filed in the same period last year.
Zaidi said that as of November, the FBR will impose strict measures against unauthorized interactions and harassement between its staff and the business community. The business community is suggested to report to FBR if any person contacts them through any manner without proper authorization.
-Pakistan, Nepal agree to enhance trade ties
President Dr. Arif Alvi on Saturday held a meeting with the Nepal’s Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli on the sidelines of 18th Non Aligned Movement Summit in Baku, ARY News reported.
According to a statement issued by the ministry, both the leaders affirmed to enhance trade ties between the two countries and expressed their desire to further strengthen the bonds of friendship. Matters of mutual interest, bilateral relations, regional peace, grave human rights violations and humanitarian crisis in occupied Kashmir and other issues were came under discussion in the meeting.
Speaking on the occasion, President Alvi briefed the Nepalese prime minister on Indian illegal actions in occupied Kashmir. He expressed hope that Nepal will play its role as SAARC chair, for strengthening peace and stability in the region.
-CPEC enters into 2nd phase: Poverty, agriculture, B2B initiatives prime focus: Khusro
Federal Minister for Planning, Development & Reform Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtyar Wednesday said the CPEC has now entered into its second phase with focus on poverty alleviation, agriculture and B2B industrial cooperation.
“The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government's economic reform measures will strengthen the country's economy as the investors' confidence is rebounding due to corrective measures," the minister expressed these views while talking to Australian High Commissioner Dr Geoffrey Shaw who called on him on Wednesday. Secretary Planning Zafar Hasan was also present in the meeting.
While discussing bilateral relations and foreign investment in various sectors in Pakistan especially in Gwadar, the minister said that ongoing phase of CPEC will bring about socioeconomic benefits for the welfare of the people. He said that CPEC offers enormous potential to boost national economy and reduce poverty.
-Pakistan's Defence Exports have reached USD 212.6 MILLION IN 2018-2019
According to the Pakistan Ministry of Defence Production’s (MoDP) “First Year Performance Report,” the country had registered $212.6 million US in defence exports from August 2018 to August 2019.
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) booked the highest value at $184.38 million US, which was followed by Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) at $7.13 million US and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) at $1.3 million US. In addition, private sector firms booked $19.36 million US in sales.
No additional breakdowns were provided by the MoDP. It is likely that PAC’s exports were fueled by co-production work for FC-1/JF-17 sales to Myanmar and/or Nigeria. Though an agreement was signed with Turkey for the sale of 52 Super Mushshak basic trainers, it is unclear if PAC has started manufacturing these aircraft.
-DRAP to launch countrywide drive against substandard, spurious medicines
The Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP) is launching a countrywide campaign against substandard medicines, the PM’s Special Assistant on Health Dr. Zafar Mirza said while addressing the federal and provincial drug inspectors in Islamabad on Thursday.
He said a crackdown is being launched throughout the country to eradicate the menace of unregistered, spurious and sub-standard medicine. In addition to medicine quality, he added, DRAP will also take stern action against violation of fixed prices of medicines.
-Foreign exchange: SBP reserves increase $79m to $7.89b
The foreign exchange reserves held by the central bank increased 1.14% on a weekly basis, according to data released by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) on Thursday.
Earlier, the reserves had spiralled downwards, falling below the $7-billion mark, which raised concern over Pakistan’s ability to meet its financing requirements. However, financial assistance from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia and other friendly nations helped shore up the foreign exchange reserves.
On October 18, the foreign currency reserves held by the SBP were recorded at $7,892.7 million, up $79 million compared with $7,813.7 million in the previous week. The report cited no reason for the increase in reserves, which stood below the $8-billion mark.
-Ease of business: Pakistan up 28 places on World Bank index
Pakistan has jumped up 28 places on the World Bank’s (WB) Ease of Doing Business Index and secured a place among the top 10 countries with the most improved business climate – a development that will greatly improve Islamabad’s image abroad,
Pakistan carried out six reforms that helped improving its ranking from 136 to 108, according to the WB’s annual flagship report, ‘Ease of Doing Business 2020’, released on Thursday. It turned out to be the sixth global reformer and first in South Asia that brought ease in doing business in the last one year.
The fewer are the regulations the better is the ranking on the index. The key to attain perfection is to cut the bureaucracy hindering business activities in the name of various regulations and procedures.
-CM approves Rs 500m for Punjab Housing & Town Planning Agency
Punjab Chief Minister Sardar Usman Buzdar has given approval of Rs 500 million for Punjab Housing & Town Planning Agency. He gave approval while presiding over a high-level meeting at CM Office here on Monday. During the meeting progress on Naya Pakistan Housing Project for low-income persons was reviewed and detailed briefing was also given to the participants on Naya Pakistan Housing strategy.
While addressing the meeting, Usman Buzdar said that obstacles should be removed in order to ensure completion of Naya Pakistan Housing Scheme and financial conditions of common man should be kept in mind while chalking out housing policy of the project. All out attention should be paid while constructing small houses in the province, he added. It has also been decided during the meeting to launch rural housing project in 17 model villages.
-KSE 100 gains 204 points amid improved sentiments
The benchmark KSE 100 Index depicted remarkable progress as it gained around 204 points and concluded at 33,861-level.It was a busy start to the week at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) with earnings season hitting its peak, while volumes remained at par with previous weeks’ average.
Biggest single day investment in treasury bills in the previous week of estimated US $87.5 million, increasing total investment to US$440 million since July 2019 was the major rally point in the market sentiments.
The bourse recorded an intraday low of 33,572.36 soon after the commencement of the session. However, after regaining the momentum, the index marked its day’s high at 34,008.35 adding 350.89 points. It settled higher by 204.13 points at 33,861.59. The KMI 30 Index accumulated 386.53 points to settle at 55,155.92, while the KSE All Share Index managed to gain 86.13 points, ending at 24,543.78.
-Sindh to reserve 0.5% job quota for transgender persons
The Sindh Cabinet on Wednesday agreed to reserve 0.5 per cent quota in government jobs for transgender persons. “I want to bring transgender people into the mainstream,” said Sindh Chief Minister Syed Murad Ali Shah during the cabinet meeting. “We want to make them an asset for our society.”
CM Murad congratulated the transgender community on behalf of the cabinet and advised them to improve their education. Around 41,000 positions are vacant in different government departments across Sindh out of which 206 will be given to transgender people.
A spokesperson from the chief minister’s house stated that out of the 41,000 available jobs 16,000 positions will be filled this fiscal year. Rest of the positions will be filled in the period of next three years.
-Malaysia's Mahathir stands by Kashmir comments despite India palm oil boycott
Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad said on Tuesday he would not retract his criticism of New Delhi’s actions in occupied Kashmir despite Indian traders calling for an unprecedented boycott of Malaysian palm oil.
The impasse could exacerbate what Mahathir described as a trade war between the world’s second biggest producer and exporter of the commodity and its biggest buyer so far this year.
India’s top vegetable oil trade body on Monday asked its members to stop buying Malaysian palm oil after Mahathir said at the United Nations General Assembly last month that India had “invaded and occupied” Kashmir.
-“World’s two major companies setting up solar panel plants in Pakistan”
Federal Minister for Science and Technology Fawad Chaudhry announced on Monday that the world’s two major solar panel firms will establish their plants in Pakistan. The minister tweeted saying “good news gets lost in political plays, yet I am very happy that the world’s two major companies are setting up solar panel’s plants in Pakistan.”
Chaudhry added that China’s second-largest Lithium battery producer will also set up its workshop in Pakistan. The Lithium battery-powered buses will also be manufactured in Pakistan, the tweet further said. The Minister for Science and Technology was recently on a visit to Beijing where he met various Chinese officials and the country’s business leaders.
-Pakistan Navy organizes free medical camp in Balochistan
Navy organized a free medical camp in the village Dam of Balochistan in collaboration with Sahil and Ulfat welfare foundations. According to the spokesperson of Pakistan Navy, specialist doctors of surgical, medical, skin, gynecology, child and general medically inspected patients at the camp. Over 700 patients were provided with free medical treatment, medicines and ordinary surgical facilities.
-Lahore to get Tram service soon
Citizens of Lahore are getting a modern-day tram service soon, based on the famous British-era tram service. In this regard, the Punjab Transport Department has inked an agreement with CRSC International, a Chinese company specializing in rail transportation control systems, and Inkon Group of the Czech Republic.
The development of the project is divided into several phases. In the first phase, a 35 km track will be constructed on Canal Road, Lahore. Up to 50 trams will run on this track. Once operational, the trams will be able to carry 35,000 passengers in 1 hour. The trams will be powered through electricity and batteries. A single tram will have a service life of around 40 years. 2 tram depots will be constructed at different locations as well.
-10 Pakistani Universities Ranked Among the World’s Best in ‘University Impact Rankings 2019’
Ten Pakistani universities have been ranked among the top universities in the world in the Times Higher Education (THE)’s list. THE is a weekly UK-based magazine that issues its annual list of world’s most influential universities.
The list called ‘University Impact Rankings 2019’ has included 10 Pakistani varsities in different categories, including Gender Equality, Good Health and Well-being, Quality Education, Decent Work, Economic Growth, and others. According to the magazine, the rankings assess universities against the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
-PM Imran Khan inaugurates China-Hub Power Generation Plant in Balochistan
Prime Minister (PM) Imran Khan has said that Pakistan is moving forward through China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects. Addressing inaugural ceremony of China Hub Power Generation Plant in Balochistan, he said this is the first joint project under the CPEC umbrella and he is very happy after inaugurating it.
“The government will facilitate joint collaboration between Pakistani and Chinese businesses in various sectors.”, he said. PM Imran Khan said with the help of coal reserves in Thar, Pakistan can generate huge amount of electricity, which can be enough for at least 100 years.
-Punjab Forest Department develops ‘record keeping’ mechanism
Department of Forest Punjab is managing 1.6 million acres of forest land area – 67 per cent of the entire forest land area in Punjab – under the Geographic Information System (GIS), Pakistan Today learnt reliably on Friday. The program enabled the forests department to ensure sound management and introduce state of the art record-keeping and mapping methods.
‘Development of GIS-Based Forest Management Information System in Punjab’ was approved at PC-1 with a cost of Rs75 million and a gestation period of 36 months (2016-2019) has allowed for transfer of all forest resources and inventories into IT-based inventory systems and achieved extensive field surveys, rapid data collection and its processing for development of the forestry sector on efficient lines.
-Hutchison Port Holdings announces $240m investment in Pakistan
Prime Minister Imran Khan has welcomed $240 million foreign investment from Hutchison Port Holdings, a Hong Kong-based port operator. A delegation of Hutchison Port Holdings, led by its Group Managing Director Eric Ip, called on Prime Minister Imran Khan on Tuesday. Other delegation members included HPH Middle East & Africa Managing Director Andy Tsoi and Middle East & Africa Business Director Eric Ng.
Maritime Affairs Minister Syed Ali Haider Zaidi, Adviser to PM on Commerce Abdul Razzaq Dawood, Special Assistant to PM on Overseas Pakistanis Syed Zulfiqar Abbas Bukhari, Ambassador-at-Large for Foreign Investment Ali Jehangir Siddiqui and Board of Investment Chairman Zubair Haider Gilani were also present on the occasion. Group Managing Director Eric Ip apprised the prime minister of Hutchison’s fresh investment into Pakistan approximating $240 million which will enhance the new container terminal capacity at the Karachi Port, and increase Hutchison Ports’ total investment in Pakistan to $1 billion.
-Punjab's tax collection jumps 44%
Punjab’s tax collection registered a 44% growth to Rs77 billion in first quarter of the ongoing fiscal year compared to the corresponding period of previous year, despite tough conditions of the federal government for the provinces to get a share in the federal divisible pool of resources. Punjab Finance Minister Makhdoom Hashim Jawan Bakht disclosed this at a review meeting of the Finance Department on Monday.
The meeting was briefed that despite the financial backlog left by the previous government, the current government gave a surplus budget of Rs233 billion in order to meet financial requirements of the federal government to comply with conditions of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan programme.
-‘SECP recognised as 7th most effective regulator in world’
The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) has been recognised as the “7th most effective regulator” by the World Economic Forum in its ‘Global Competitiveness Report-2019’.
“Pakistan was ranked as the 52nd most dynamic economy in the world. The country secured this by improving 15 points from last year, as it stood at 67th in 2018,” said a statement issued by Mishal Pakistan, Country Partner at WEF’s Institute of the Future of Economic Progress System Initiative, on Wednesday. “The progress of Pakistan’s competitiveness was due to the achievements made during the last 12 months.”
The most effective improvements were made due to the initiative and strategies adopted by the apex regulator for the corporate sector and the capital markets; supervision and regulation of insurance, non-banking financial companies and private pension schemes. The SECP improved Pakistan’s competitiveness rankings by improving the “number of days to start a business”, where Pakistan was ranked at the 90th position compared with 96th in 2018.
-Pakistan China bilateral trade crosses $19 billion, highest ever in history
Pakistan Ambassador to China , Naghmana Hashmi has said the bilateral trade volume between Pakistan and China has now touched US $ 19.08 billion and both countries aimed to raise it further.
“The bilateral trade volume between Pakistan and China has now touched US$ 19.08. We aim to raise it further,” Ambassador Hashmi said joint ventures in defence production have led to the manufacture of the MBT 2000 Al-Khalid Tank and JF-17 Thunder, a fighter aircraft. “On the diplomatic front, the two countries are committed to protecting and promoting multilateralism and upholding the United Nations (UN)Charter, while our cooperation has extended to science and technology, socioeconomic sectors and nuclear cooperation for peaceful purposes,” she added.
-Foreign Company Agrees to Drop $6 Billion Penalty, Re-Invest in Reko Diq: Reports
The International Center of Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) had slapped the country with a $6 billion penalty for revoking the contract without prior knowledge back in 2009. Soon after the development, the Prime Minister had empowered his financial team to contact the executives of the Tethyan Copper Company (TCC) to reach an out-of-court settlement and avoid the penalty.
Reportedly, after the Pakistan authority’s approach, the company has not only agreed to take back the penalty but has also agreed to invest in the project again. As per media reports, PM Imran Khan contacted the TCC management and discussed the prospects of the matter. He assured the company his full support if they wanted to revise the investment plan for the project. The company will reportedly withdraw its appeal from the ICSID, while Pakistan will compensate for their damages due to the cancelation of the contract.
-Current account deficit shrinks massive 64pc
The country’s current account deficit (cad) in the first quarter of current fiscal year declined by a huge 64 per cent mainly on the back of a 21pc reduction in the imports bill.
The State Bank’s latest data issued on Friday showed the current account deficit for July-September FY20 clocked in at $1.548 billion compared to $4.287bn in the same period last fiscal year; a decline of $2.739bn.
The reduced current account deficit is a positive omen for the government, which is struggling with slow economic growth and high inflation. However, despite massive decline in rupee’s value, the country’s exports have failed to register any noticeable increase during the period.
-Food imports down 24pc, exports up 14pc in Q1 FY20
Food group imports into the country during the first quarter of the current financial year (July-Sept 2019-20) decreased considerably by 24.7pc, whereas exports increased by 13.98pc compared with the corresponding period of last year.
The import of food commodities into the country during the period under review came down from $1.45 billion to $1 billion, whereas the exports increased from $864 million to $984.7 million, according to latest data released by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS).
-Chinese Smartphone Company Realme to build mobile phone manufacturing factory in Pakistan
Chinese company Realme's Director of Marketing in Pakistan Mr He Shunzi in an interview disclosed that Realme is planning to set up the mobile phone manufacturing factory in Pakistan. He told that company is inspecting locations in Islamabad, Peshawar, and Faisalabad Industrial Estate for suitable land. Pakistani mobile market offers guaranteed capital as Realme ranked top five android brands in Pakistan in less than nine months, capturing 8% of total market share, he added.
-Chinese Coal Giant Wants to Convert Thar’s Coal to Diesel
China’s Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group will help convert Thar’s coal into oil and the talks between the two parties are underway. The Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group is a subsidiary of China’s biggest coal producer, the Shenhua Group and the company already has the world’s largest plant for converting coal into diesel, with an annual production capacity of 4 million tons in Ningxia in its portfolio.
The agreement, if signed, will be a ‘game-changer’ for Pakistan, believes Adviser to Prime Minister on Petroleum Nadeem Babar, who accompanied Imran Khan on his recent visit to China. The Pakistani delegation held talks with the Shenhua Group during the trip:
-In a positive development, Pakistan projected among top 20 rising economic growth engines of the World
Pakistan projected among 20 top rising economic growth engines of the World that would dominate the global growth in next 5 years. Pakistan has been projected as one of 20 countries that will dominate global growth in five years time in 2024, an assessment made by Bloomberg using data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
-In a positive development, Pakistan textile exports register increase
Textile exports from the country increased by 2.95pc during the first quarter of the current fiscal year (July-Sept FY20) compared with the corresponding period of the last fiscal year. The textile exports during the period under review were recorded at $3,371.974 million as against the exports of $3,275.303 million during July-September 2018-19, according to latest data by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS).
The textile commodities that contributed to the positive growth included raw cotton, exports of which grew by 53.65pc, from $7.047 million to $10.828 million. Similarly, the exports of yarn (other than cotton yarn) increased by 21.95pc, from $7.759 million last year to $9.462 million, while that of knitwear surged by 11.14pc, from $701.393 million to $779.548 million.
-Kartarpur Corridor will open to public on November 9: PM Imran
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Sunday announced that Pakistan will inaugurate the Kartarpur Corridor on November 9. The premier’s announcement came via a Facebook post in which he said that construction work on the Pakistani side had entered the final stage. “Pakistan is all set to open its doors for Sikhs from all across the globe,” he wrote. “World’s largest Gurdwara will be visited by Sikhs from across India and other parts of the world,” he said.
-'$1.2b penalty in Karkey case likely to be waived'
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) leader and senior lawyer Babar Awan has said that the $1.2 billion penalty that Pakistan has to pay to Turkey’s Karkey rental power plant is likely to be waived.
“International institutions, through high-level backdoor contacts, have agreed to waive off the penalty. This is very good news for Pakistan,” said Awan while addressing the media on Friday. “International institutions have shown their trust in Prime Minister Imran Khan,” he added.
-Punjab Govt to Introduce a Unified Tax Collection System
Punjab government is contemplating the introduction of a unified tax collection system in the province. The unified system will streamline the tax collection process and facilitate the taxpayers. At the moment, Punjab Revenue Department, Excise and Taxation Department, and local administrations collect taxes in Punjab. On Sunday, Finance Minister of Punjab, Makhdoom Hashim Jawan Bakht, headed a meeting of Punjab Revenue Authority (PRA). Bakht said that a special tax management unit will be set up at the Punjab finance department that will unify tax collection all across the country.
-PM To Launch Clean Green Pakistan Index for Multiple Cities
Prime Minister’s Adviser on Climate Change, Malik Amin Aslam, said that Imran Khan will launch the Clean Green Pakistan Index (CGPI) at a grand launching ceremony on October 30. The initiative is aimed at introducing competition among cities on various indicators, including public access to clean drinking water, safe sanitation, effective solid waste management, and tree plantation.
The prime minister will announce a six-month competition among 19 cities of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa provinces, he added. The adviser said that after six months, these cities will be ranked again and those with prominent progress will be rewarded with special federal and provincial government funds and more cities will be joining the competition.
-PM Khan Will Lay The Foundation of Baba Guru Nanak University on Oct. 28
Prime Minister Imran Khan is going to lay the foundation stone of Baba Guru Nanak University on October 28. The establishment of this university in Nankana Sahib was announced earlier this year when PM Khan was in the town for a Spring Tree Plantation Campaign.
-Sindh govt invites bids for Dhabeji SEZ
The Sindh government has launched the well-connected Dhabeji Special Economic Zone in district Thatta near Port Qasim, according to a statement issued on Monday. In this connection, the Sindh Economic Zones Management Company (SEZMC), being the provincial SEZ custodian, has invited proposals for the development and operation of Dhabeji project through an advertisement published in leading national and international newspapers.
Dhabeji SEZ was highlighted in the recent meeting of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Joint Working Group on Industrial Cooperation. The senior officials of China’s National Development Reforms Commission (NDRC) appreciated the Sindh government on the progress made so far. The Sindh government launched the project through an international competitive bidding process as a build-up to the upcoming 10th Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) meeting between China and Pakistan, which would be held next month.
-Rice exports surge 51pc in first quarter FY20
Rice exports from the country during the first quarter of the financial year 2019-20 grew by 50.76pc as compared to the corresponding period last year. During the July-September period, about 839,356 metric tonnes of rice, worth $470.584 million, were exported as compared the exports of 551.5,86 metric tonnes, valuing $312.147 million, during the same period of FY19.
According to data released by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, the exports of basmati rice increased by 47.29pc, as 212,873 metric tonnes of basmati rice ($194.669 million) were exported during the first quarter of FY20, as compared the 127,669 metric tonnes ($132.166 million) in the same period of last year. Meanwhile, 34,090 metric tonnes of fish and fish preparations worth $79.549 million were also exported in the period under review as compared to the exports of 25,859 metric tonnes valuing $67.294 million during the same period of last year.
submitted by FashBasher1 to pakistan [link] [comments]

TATA Consumer Products Shares Complete Fundamental Analysis

TATA Consumer Products was formed when Tata Chemicals de-merged it’s Consumer Products Business (CPB) as a going concern into Tata Global Beverages in an-all equity transaction in February 2020.
The overall aim of the transaction was to create a sizeable Consumer player in the Indian market with enhanced scale and financial strength.
The company currently manufactures Tea, Coffee, Liquid beverages, Salt, Spices and Staples and operates a joint venture with Starbucks in India. Some of their major brands include Tata Tea, Tetley, Himalayan Water, Tata Salt and Tata Sampann.
After the restructuring, the company’s addressable market has increased by 300% and 90% of its total revenue comes from branded business. This will give them a cost advantage due to the economies of scale.
The company owns some popular brands like Tata Salt which is №1 salt brand in India. Their Tata Tea brand is №1 in terms of volume and №2 in terms of value. Tetley brand is among the top 3 in the UK and Canada along with Eight O’ Clock which is the 4th largest player in coffee bags in the US.
Some focused brands like Tata Tea Agni and Spice Mix continue to grow in double digits in India. Overall the company has a wide global presence along with strong branding and backing of the 150-year-old Tata conglomerate. Therefore this category gets 4 stars in TATA consumer shares fundamental analysis.
I have evaluated the company on 10 fundamental categories and each has been given a rating out of 5 stars. From this, I have arrived at a combined stock rating for the company.
This is the summary of the analysis. You can read the detailed analysis and ratings on the source link to my blog.
Source: TATA Consumer Shares Fundamental Analysis and Future Outlook
Some insights for the coming years from management discussion & analysis (MD&A) and con calls are as follows.
The company shows promising growth opportunities and business synergies, but faces headwinds due to weakening demand and the global disruption in supply chains due to COVID-19. The situation may start improving once the demand picks up and supply chains are restored.
Join my Telegram Channel
Subscribe to my Blog: Subscribe — Billion Dollar Valuation
Twitter
submitted by DhairyaDamjiPatel to EquityResearchIndia [link] [comments]

Yes, China is Hoarding Gold: Is That Positive for Prices?

In mid-2015, China ended years of speculation over its gold reserves by announcing that it had 1,658 tons of gold. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) had increased its official gold holdings by 60% since its last disclosure in 2009. China had 1,054 tons of gold in its reserves as of April 2009.
By 2015, the price of bullion had dipped to its lowest since the 2011 gold bull run that pushed the metal to highs of $1,900 per ounce. The East Asian economic giant had been accumulating gold as the USD strengthened, pushing the prices of bullion to some of the lowest levels of the decade.
China is an export powerhouse and is not only the world’s largest exporter but also the largest holder of foreign exchange (forex) reserves. The country has over $3.11 trillion worth of foreign exchange holdings, to shield it during economic emergencies.
These vast forex reserves also buoy its native currency and give it much-needed clout in international affairs. These immense reserves increase the footprint of the US dollar in international trade. Its dollar reserves have also been a significant contributor to the current global savings glut.
The Chinese manufacturing sector holds a lot of US government bonds, and these savings — plus those made by other Asian countries — have directed mass capital flows to US households.
Beijing has, however, clarified that it is diversifying its reserves away from the dollar.
Beijing is highly exposed to American currency. Its overdependence on the dollar has been behind its silent gold-buying spree that raised its reserves from 1,658 tons in 2015 to 1,848.31 tons by the fourth quarter of 2019.
Economists note that China’s bid to decouple from the dollar heightened with the China-US trade war. The US threatened not only Chinese stocks listed in the US with delisting, but slapped massive tariffs on their exports. China, on the other hand, used its dollar-pegged currency, the Yuan, to fight back against the US’s punitive measures.

China Diversifying its Forex Reserves

In August, the PBOC allowed the Yuan’s value to fall against the dollar to cheapen its exports. The move increased the prices of American goods, a move that not only caused a massive shockwave in the market but also angered the US president so much that he called China an outright currency manipulator.
Besides diversifying to other currencies, China has also accumulated “shadow reserves.” Diversification away from the USD will also give the Yuan a more significant role in global finance. It is this Chinese desire to counteract a highly US dollar-centric system that has seen the country buy up massive amounts of gold as part of its alternative investments.
One factor that has gone almost unnoticed is the massive accumulation of gold by Chinese citizens. They have collectively imported over 12,000 tons of gold into the country since 2009. Switzerland is the world’s largest importer of gold, buying about 22% of all global gold imports as per 2018 data.
It is closely followed by China, which raked in close to 16% of all gold imports in the same year. Hong Kong, India, and the United Kingdom are also part of the world’s biggest gold-buyer markets. Switzerland might be a global leader in gold imports, but it is also the largest exporter of the premier precious metal.
The central European country is a gold refinery hub, and it is home to four of the world’s largest gold refineries. The mountainous country is home to Newmont Mining’s Valcambi SA, which refines close to 1,400 metric tonnes of the precious metal every year.
Switzerland is such an exporter of gold that of the 3,100 tons of the yellow metal produced in the country in 2016, 2,716 tons went to exports.

China Keeps Most of its Gold

China is the world’s second-largest importer of gold, but unlike Switzerland, most of the gold China imports remain in China. As an illustration, China imported $64 billion worth of gold in 2016, and only exported a paltry $1.2 billion worth of it. In essence, China was $62.7 billion richer by the end of that year.
The East Asian nation not only stores its imports but also buys a large share from Hong Kong, the fifth most prolific importer of the precious metal. The Pearl of the Orient bought 842 tons or 8.7% of the world’s gold imports in 2016. In that year, Hong Kong sold 1,337 tons to China, dipping its hands into its reserves in its bid to meet the insatiable Chinese demand for gold.
The Chinese have not always had it easy with gold. Mao Zedong banned the individual purchase of gold, and the ban was enforced for decades afterward. The Chinese bank was the only buyer of gold in the country, and it only allocated its gold reserves to a small number of state-owned jewelers.
In the early 2000s, the ban on individual gold purchases was lifted, and the Chinese gold rush began in earnest. The world’s busiest physical gold exchange was launched and opened to the public, flourishing as the government put measures in place that encouraged the gold trade.
This excitement and clamor for gold moved a lot of gold from western vaults to the east as the most massive movement of gold recorded in recent history took place.
Since then, the Chinese demand for gold takes 14% of the world’s supply, yet the country has been the largest producer of the yellow metal since 2007. The nation consumes over two times more gold than it mines with a large percentage of its citizens spending massive amounts of cash on gold adornments.
Many Chinese millennials spend thousands of Yuan on fashionable jewelry. Their parents, on the other hand, buy 24-carat clunky gold jewelry, the perfect investment vehicle for that generation.
The jewelry — evocative of gold ingots — is easy to sell and the money recouped when the need arises. They also buy matt ranges of gold jewelry, shunning tacky pure gold adornments for creative and lower carat gold designs.

Gold is a Safer Investment in a Debt-Ridden Global Economy

China has been a net importer of gold since the 1990s, but its significant purchases have increased since the global economic recession. The Chinese central bank — the supervisors of the Shanghai Gold Exchange — has encouraged the gold trade in the country by enabling the commerce of fine gold at its lowest spreads.
Sun Zhaoxue, the China Gold Association president, has, in the past, said:
“Individual investment demand is an essential component of China’s gold reserve system, and we should encourage individual investment demand for gold. Practice shows that gold possession by citizens is a useful supplement to national reserves and is very important to national financial security …. We should advocate to ‘store gold among the people’ [“People’s Gold”] and guide a healthy, positive development in this segment … This is the aim of our gold strategy.”
She goes on to ask for a strategic national gold strategy to make China resilient against multiple economic occurrences. To this end, the Shanghai Gold Exchange has made tremendous steps in making the gold trade as easy as possible, even launching an app to aid it.
China’s centuries-old infatuation with gold has led them to accumulate over 20,000 tons of gold because the People’s Bank of China does not buy gold from the domestic market.
Consequently, all the gold that is purchased by the Chinese stays in the local market. Pundits also believe that the Chinese central bank holds more gold than its official reserve numbers portray. The economic giant underreports its gold holdings to enable it to accumulate more of the precious metal at lower prices.
As China slowly delinks from a USD that has already lost its value due to prevailing high debt to GDP ratios globally, it stands out as one nation prepping for an oncoming economic catastrophe that could inevitably lift prices.
The World Bank has already issued a warning that the current wave of debt is untenable. Global debt percentages now exceed 322% of GDP. Central banks have pushed the global economy to the brink due to easing policies meant to stimulate economic activity.
Unfortunately, they find themselves intertwined in a broadening circle of money printing activities, which will eventually lead to extreme inflation. The management of inflation means that real rates will keep falling, and gold values will keep rising.
In debt-ridden financial systems, he who holds the gold makes the rules. And China is ready to step up.
submitted by y0ujin to NovemGold [link] [comments]

India free classified ads sites without registration

A publicizing like in paper, online and magazines which are distributed with no charge or sold is known as detailed promotion. Likewise, these promotions are less expensive than ads that are displayed; however, they are much being used. These days the online ad promotion is the most helpful and effectively reachable methods for publicizing as around 40% of the total populace has a web association today. Now we will examine an online classified commercial technique which let us post free advertisement on free websites.
What is Web-based Promoting Posting?
Web-based publicizing is a method for showcasing and publicizing through the web for expanding the business opportunity and advancing your business.
What are the advantages of posting free Advertisements on Classified Sites?
The following are the benefits of why online promotion has become very useful today:
· Increment the traffic of the site
· Free advertisement posting locales
· Saves Time
· Incredible opportunity
· Effectively congenial
There are many free worldwide advertisements posting websites accessible around on the web today which give free promotion posting administrations. Likewise, there are many free grouped advertisements posting programming on the internet, which you can download and utilize it for posting promotion all-around effectively. A few of those sites post an ad without enlistment or sign up.
Here are some free sites for advertisement posting:
Clickindia:
It is a reputed website based in India which offers numerous advantages when it comes to ad posting. There are different categories on offer in terms of products and services, and you can choose any type depending upon your business requirement. It is one reputed website in India in terms of advertising.
Expressclassifieds.in:
Renowned as another top-rated ad promotion site, they also have several options when it comes to ad posting. It is a site, as known by the name itself, offers quick search options and filters so that you can screen the product and item you are looking for and find the ideal product for you. It is equally a good site for both buyers and sellers alike.
Asklaila:
Another viral classified website where you can both post and look for any information regarding pets, entertainment, coffee shop, shopping, nightlife, doctors, movies, and several other things. It is a very renowned classified site in India and everything in store for you to find your requirement.
Justdial.com:
Today, you will hardly fond anyone who doesn’t have any idea about justdial.com. It has an enormous database of different sections, which include buying air tickets, automobiles, recharge, book hotels, cab rentals, medicines, fitness, and numerous more. They offer essential information in terms of jobs if you are looking for full time as well as part-time. It is one of the oldest classified websites and once you have reached here for searching something you will get it for sure. You can also post numerous ads under the several categories available here.
Ishuads.in:
Ishuads.in is another classified website for free ad posting; this is a website where you can get all you need to promote your product. They also offer different sections where you can opt for the category of product or service and post your ad. There is also an option of phone number verification which is essential because once you do so, more customers will be able to reach you and vice-versa. It is a useful online platform for your brand promotion. You should try this no matter whatever campaign you are in. It is free to post your ads.
Whereincity.com:
It is another online platform for advertisement and promotion, which is free for posting as well. This website offers plenty of search options and different categories to choose from. Apart from the free classifieds, it provides several other services like Hotel Reservations, booking through SMS, Forex Trading, Airlines booking, and plenty more options. You may post several ads under several categories offered there.
adsglobe.com:
As the name suggests, it covers areas that can exist in this world. If you open their website, you will find all the information on the front page itself. Their interface is straightforward with all the categories provided as a list so that you do not have to search them manually. The critical thing to know that you may not need to register here to post your ad and ad posting is free. So choose your category, fill up the necessary details, and the go-ahead to post your ad in a single click.
Postfreeads.in:
Postfreeads.in is a classified website which has made their mark not so long ago. It has plenty of categories that you can choose for the promotion of your product. It is a very much user-friendly website where you will have access to all the information that too free of cost. You will not need to register here as it is not mandatory and you will be able to post your ad under the suitable section. Already, numerous individuals and enterprises have posted their ads under this platform. It is growing even stronger with the passing of every year. If you have not come across this site to date, go through it and explore all the options here.
Freeadsmax.com:
If you have come across this site before, you must know freeadsmax is very useful as a classified ad website. There are different sections on this website, which you will get to see once you open the home page of the website. The different categories here include anything that you would like to buy or sell, education and training, services, a section for different types of jobs available, travel and holidays, exchanging two-wheelers or other automobiles and so on. Through this website, you can reach the audience all over India. Try this website as it is free as well if you have not tried it before.
Conclusion:
There are numerous opportunities galore if you are new in your business and are trying to reach the mass market. Today, the presence of online portals has made everything possible, and expanding your market has never been easy like it is today. Hence, to make yourself successful, start building your online presence today.
submitted by KeishaM to globalnewsroom [link] [comments]

[ECON] 2022 People's Bank of China Statement

Press Conference with the Governor of the People's Bank of China 任中国人民银行行长 Yi Gang 易纲 on current monetary and regulatory matters in the People's Republic of China for the year 2022
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen
The People's Bank of China (PBOC) is gladdened to announce that the efforts made by the Bank to consolidate financial markets and reign in unproductive credit and the misappropriation in debt lending are seeing bountiful returns. For the 2022 year forecast, we are thus heartened to state that the economy has exponentially preformed to bring growth above 7 percent, beating negative analysis on efforts on the PBOC and government's meaningful reforms to address core structural issues that have threatened the Chinese and global economy.
While we have identified specific measures in relation to consumer demand and business growth, in conjunction with the improving regulatory framework, we foresee promising inflationary movement and are pleased to see an adaptive labour market take hold in overall trends for key benchmarks.
In regards to the current developments in the Banks's stimulus efforts, we shall maintain the current level of market guidance and capital assistance. While we continue this approach, we are constantly assessing the Mainland's capital markets liquidity and should concerns be spotted that identify general overheating, the PBOC is ready to address those concerns and enforce targeted measures.
Now, onto the main elements of the year's statement: the current status on the internationalisation of the Renminbi and policy responses to optimise a favourable environment as well as new guidelines on capital market
The following discussion shall be complimented with the following handout:

The Renminbi - The People's Currency, and Soon the World's?

The Continued Dollar Dominance
Chinese Efforts to Open Up the Renminbi - An Uneven Effort
Making The Cross Across the Riverbed Towards A More Global Renminbi
The PBOC has issued the following in its Guiding Measures to the Chinese Mainland and SAR financial markets:
This new rule will further buoy the offshore Renminbi (“Dim Sum”) bond market and accelerate the pace of Renminbi internationalisation.
submitted by Relativity_One to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]

main trading company

main trading company

We created this website to bring together all the tools and services you’ll need to start trading for real. If you want to start taking advantage of the markets now, without having to become an expert, our free trading signal. Whatever you’re looking for, you’ll find it with us.
Here you’ll learn the basic terminology to be a successful Forex trader. To begin learning Forex, you’ll need to have a good grasp on the basic definitions, rules and terms used by professional traders. At first, this can sound daunting but after we spell out the fundamentals, it will become clearer and you’ll be on your way to becoming a Forex trader. We will cover terms, such as; base currency, the quote currency, micro lots, mini lots, standard lots, long position, short position, pips, spread, margin and many more.
Someone who is using more than 10% of the whole equity into a trading session is probably not having a good money management strategy. Because you should always trade safe and also because the market may turn back on you and you would find yourself in a big margin problem. With good risk management, having 10% of your account invested can bring consistent returns with no problems.

Profit Rate :

Some traders can’t make 10% per year. Others can safely and consistently make 30% per month and they are not afraid to show their verified performance as a solid proof of what they offer. While taking into consideration a proper risk and money management, you should never aim to make millions in one week with a small account because that would probably mean hitting margin call. Just remember: a good strategy and analysis will always bring profits. And if at the end of the month you have only 1% profit, that means you don’t have -1% loss.

Choosing the Best Forex Broker :

In order to start trading Forex, you will need to find the right online Forex broker for you with the cash rebate program. It’s important to find the right Forex broker for your trading needs according to several important criteria, such as security, customer service, trading platform, transaction costs, live quotes and more. While reading our guide on how to choose the best FOREX BROKERS.

Forex for free :

Most Forex brokers offer many free options, services, tips and information to help you trade better. Real-time charts and news, help guides, and blogs help you understand and learn about the market in real time. There are also many “demo” accounts to try the market before putting in real money.

Why Trade Forex?

The Forex market is fast becoming the most attractive and popular market in the world. The traditional stock is no longer relevant and traders are moving fast into the Forex. We collected here a few reasons to show you why this is happening and what advantages the Forex market has to make is so popular.
We choose to focus on a few very important advantages of the Forex trading and the reasons that people choose this market:
forex is the largest financial market in the world. The daily volume of the Forex market is huge over $3 trillion per day. This makes the stability of the market very good compared to stock trading. The price in the Forex market is exactly what you see is what you get and you can follow it very easily.
Forex trading simplifies everything, there’s no clearing fees, no exchange fees, no government fees, no brokerage fees, no middlemen. The elimination of the middlemen gets the traders closer to the actual trade and makes the traders responsible for their pricing. The brokers are usually paid through a service called “bid-ask spread”.
The Forex market is open 24 hours a day. Opening on Monday morning (in Australia) and closing in the afternoon (in New York). This is great for traders that can trade all day long or in parts. You can choose the times that are convenient for your trading, day-night, when you eat or when you sleep, whenever you want.
In Forex trading you can minimize the risk by depositing a small amount that will control a larger contract value. This is controlled by leverage and can make you profitable in the Forex market. If a broker gives 50 to 1 leverage it means that with $50 deposit you can buy or sell with $2500. If you put $500, you can trade with $25,000. All this needs to be done with great risk management because high leverage can easily lead to great loss, as well as great profit.
The Forex market is huge and therefore also very liquid. This means that on every buys or sell that you make, there will be someone who will take the other side of the trade. You will never be grounded because there’s no one on the other side.
To get started you would think that you need a lot of money. The reality is that online Forex brokers have “mini” and “micro” options and some of them have a minimum of only $25. This is great for Forex beginners because it makes the trading starting point easier. I’m not saying that you need to start with the minimum, but being cautious is never bad and starting small is good for the average trader.
main trading company

Forex the best trading market :

You can easily predict the movements in the Forex market you have many repetitive patterns and it’s fairly easy to learn, recognize and analyze these movements. The prices tend to go up or down and return to the average. They stay for quite a long time up or down and this stability makes the Forex market a much easier market to follow. This gives the traders a huge advantage in controlling their trades much better than the disorder.

Risk Warning :

We always suggest our clients to carefully consider their investment objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite. try to money management with every trade.
Trading foreign exchange on margin carries a high level of risk and may not be suitable for all investors. The high degree of leverage can work against you as well as for you. FOREX IN WORLD takes no responsibility for loss incurred as a result of our trading signals. Before deciding to trade foreign exchange you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience and risk appetite.
The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment and therefore you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose. You should be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange trading and seek advice from an independent financial advisor if you have any doubts.
FOREX TRADING IN INDIA: Forex means currency pair trading. Indian citizens can trade only currencies that have a pairing with INR. It is legal to trade with Indian Brokers providing access to Indian Exchanges(NSE, BSE, MCX-SX) providing access to Currency Derivatives. Since 2008, RBI and SEBI have permitted trading in currency derivatives. The currency pairs available for trading are USD-INR, EUR-INR, JPY-INR and GBP-INR.
submitted by Red-its to maintradingcompany [link] [comments]

(Translation) ELI5 on how China fucked their own economy, chapter 1

Original post harmonized, here's link to the text: http://blog.boxun.com/hero/201510/dwdl/6_1.shtml
Chapter 1: How did China's economic miracle happen
Seriously, China's economic "miracle" is the most miraculous from when they lifted people out of poverty, but this ain't no miracle because if Mao didn't do communal farming and shit there wouldn't have been a poverty in the first place. This is common knowledge.
OK moving on, next, economic figures. Very good, but this is just like a kid who used to suck at class started to work hard and get to the top. Not uncommon. Just ask any nong on the streets, the majority of them have this kind of experience in primary school.
The true miracle starts in 2001!
2001, China joined the World Trade Union. The entire world opened to market all of a sudden. China facing a market so massive found it's own position and target: machining!
China has got a unique advantage in machining. First they have the numbers. Second they have the poors. Third they have nice guys(people easily bullied), last they have path leaders. What do I mean "path leaders"? Let's look at Asia's "4 dragons" of 2001, 2 out of 4 of the dragons are of Chinese heritage who are transitioning out of their machining trade phase, which leads to a lot of Hong Kong and Taiwan factory owners moving to China to continue their business, bringing in their entire operations to China, and thus, China takes off! In 10 years China has made it to be the "world's factory", where no other market can match China when it comes to machining! CCTV once made a program called "Made in Dongguan", in the program the reported pointed at a highway in Dongguan and said "If this road is jammed for 30 minutes, the entire world's computer price will inflate!" So proud, so arrogant, like they already control the fate of the entire world's economy! Citizens just need to grind hard, and they win! Simple? Yeah, it's that simple. This is called "won trick pony". The question is, why don't the others copy us?
They can't! Back in the days, our workers work continuous overtime, no social safety net, young work old fuck off. Our lands can simply be confiscated, our pollution can go unchecked, we can even use taxpayer's money to help business owners to export through forex manipulation and government subsidy. This is the advantage China has and only China has, you can't do that! This is the advantage professor Qinhui call "low human rights advantage"
That's the miracle. Other countries are also massive, are also poor(India), but they can't do what China can do, they can't find their position in their market, they can't grow their market! With this "won trick pony", China has made itself into the world's second largest economic region!
Of course, you can also argue that our class of 200 against your class of 20, of course we win everytime in terms of total school. But does that mean we have good score per capita?
But look at it this way. 66 years ago, this is a class who spend all day sleeping and now it is a class who are actually putting effort in learning, so you can't deny us of our effort, kay?
This is the miracle. At least compared with those Indian pigs, China has contributed far more than India to the world economy!
(to be continued tomorrow, or immediately if upvotes goes above 50)
submitted by upads to China [link] [comments]

How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex
Learn The Basics |Advanced Topics | Chart Patterns | Choose The Best Broker
Beware of scam companies! Trade only with a good licensed broker that holds an FCA or ASIC license like these.

USE A BROKER THAT PROVIDES 0.0 pips Spreads and 500:1 Leverage for better trading!
OPEN A DEMO ACCOUNT | OPEN A LIVE ACCOUNT

How does Forex Work?

Forex trading is the simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another…
Read more

Basic Terminology

Before trading currencies, an investor has to understand the basic terminology of the forex market…
Read more

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is the study of the overall economic, financial, political…
Read more

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the study of prices over time, with charts being the primary tool…
Read more

Trend Lines

The term ‘trend’ describes the current direction of the financial instrument…
Read more

What is a Technical Indicator

Technical Indicators are a result of mathematical calculations/algorithms…
Read more

Gold Trading

As an investment, gold is the most popular of the precious metals…
Read more

Order Types

A market order is an order to open a buy or sell position at…
Read more

We complete our education centre with a breakdown of Gold Trading and details of the different Order Types.
You can also review our glossary to find brief definitions of various trading and financial terms you may encounter.
Once you have familiarised yourself with the information and concepts, you can open a Demo Trading Account to practice what you have learnt and build on your knowledge and understanding of how to trade successfully. Treat your demo account as you would your real account.
Aprender a operar con Forex | Lernen Sie Forex zu handeln

  1. What is Forex? Think the stock market is huge? Think again. Learn about the LARGEST financial market in the world and how to trade in it.
    1. What Is Forex?Learn about this massively huge financial market where fiat currencies are traded.
    2. What Is Traded In Forex?Currencies are the name of the game. Yes, you can buy and sell currencies against each other as a short-term trade, long-term investment, or something in-between.
    3. Buying And Selling Currency PairsThe first thing that you need to know about forex trading is that currencies are traded in pairs; you can’t buy or sell a currency without another.
    4. Forex Market Size And LiquidityThe Forex market is yuuuuuuuggggeeee! And that comes with a lot of benefits for currency traders!
    5. The Different Ways To Trade ForexSome of the more popular ways that traders participate in the forex market is through the spot market, futures, options, and exchange-traded funds.
  2. Why Trade Forex? Want to know some reasons why traders love the forex market? Read on to find out what makes it so attractive!
    1. Why Trade Forex: Advantages Of Forex TradingLow transaction costs and high liquidity are just a couple of the advantages of the forex market.
    2. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. StocksNobody likes bullies! Good thing for us, unlike the stock market, there is no one financial institute large enough to corner the forex market!
    3. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. FuturesThe futures market trades a puny $30 billion per day. Thirty billion? Peanuts compared to the FIVE TRILLION that is traded daily in the forex market!
  3. Who Trades Forex? From money exchangers, to banks, to hedge fund managers, to local Joes like your Uncle Pete – everybody participates in the forex market!
    1. Forex Market StructureBecause there is no centralized market, tight competition between banks normally leads to having the best prices! Boo yeah!
    2. Forex Market PlayersThe forex market is basically comprised of four different groups.
    3. Know Your Forex History!If it wasn’t for the Bretton Woods System (and the great Al Gore), there would be no retail forex trading! Time to brush up on your history!
  4. When Can You Trade Forex? Now that you know who participates in the forex market, it’s time to learn when you can trade!
    1. Forex Trading SessionsJust because the forex market is open 24 hours a day doesn’t mean it’s always active! See how the forex market is broken up into four major trading sessions and which ones provides the most opportunities.
    2. When Can You Trade Forex: Tokyo SessionGodzilla, Nintendo, and sushi! What’s not to like about Tokyo?!? The Tokyo session is sometimes referred to as the Asian session, which is also the session where we start fresh every day!
    3. When Can You Trade Forex: London SessionNot only is London the home of Big Ben, David Beckham, and the Queen, but it’s also considered the forex capital of the world–raking in about 30% of all forex transactions every day!
    4. When Can You Trade Forex: New York SessionNew York baby! The concrete jungle where forex dreams are made of! Just like Asia and Europe, the U.S. is considered one of the top financial centers in the world, so it definitely sees its fair share of action–and then some!
    5. Best Times of Day to Trade ForexTrading is all about volatility and liquidity. Which times of day provide the most dynamic market action and volumes?
    6. Best Days of the Week to Trade ForexEach trader should know when to trade and when NOT to trade. Read on to find out the best and worst times to trade.
  5. How Do You Trade Forex? Now, it’s time to learn HOW to rake in the moolah!
    1. How to Make Money Trading ForexJust like any other market: buy low and sell high…and vice versa. Simple, right!?
    2. Know When to Buy or Sell a Currency PairLet’s start with the very basics. First, what drives the value of a currency?
    3. What is a Pip in Forex?You’ve probably heard of the terms “pips,” “pipettes,” and “lots” thrown around, and here we’re going to explain what they are and show you how their values are calculated.
    4. What is a Lot in Forex?How many units of currency can we trade? What size positions can we trade and what are they called?
    5. Impress Your Date with Forex LingoWanna impress your crush? Here are some forex terms to help you wow that special someone!
    6. Types of Forex Orders“Would you like pips with that?” Okay, not that type of order, but buying and selling currencies can be just as simple with a little practice.
    7. Demo Trade Your Way to SuccessCurrency market behavior is constantly evolving. Trade on demo first to get a lot of the rookie mistakes out of the way before risking live capital. There are no take-backs in the real market.
    8. Forex Trading is NOT a Get-Rich-Quick SchemeWhile possible if you’re a trading genius with ice in your veins and you’re luckier than a lottery winner, building wealth through trading takes time and practice to build the skills and experience needed to be successful.
📷
Via XNTRADES.com
Topics Which Every Trader Must Master.
Or at least know your Chart Patterns
Support and Resistance v.1
Support and Resistance v.2
Elliot Waves Theory
Elliott Waves 101
Harmonic Patterns
Chart Patterns
How to Trade Market Structure
More educational materials from TRESORFX.com and XNTRADES.com

OPEN A DEMO ACCOUNT | OPEN A LIVE ACCOUNT


THE BEST FOREX BROKER offers 0.0 pips Spreads and 500:1 Leverage

Instant Same Day Withdraws | Accurate Forex Signals | "WIN EVERY TRADE" - The Guide To Flawless Trading
100% Accurate Forex Trading Signals

Best Forex Broker in the United Kingdom
Best Forex Broker in Switzerland
Best Forex Broker in Denmark | Bedste Forex Broker i Danmark
Best Forex Broker in Finland | Paras Forex-välittäjä Suomessa
Best Forex Broker in Spain | Mejor Broker de Forex en España
Best Forex Broker in Australia
Best Forex Broker in Germany | Bester Forex Broker in Deutschland
Best Forex Broker in Ireland
Best Forex Broker in Luxembourg
Best Forex Broker in Italy | Miglior broker Forex in Italia
Best Forex Broker in the UK
Best Forex Broker in Sweden | Bästa Forex Broker i Sverige
Best Forex Broker in the Netherlands | Beste Forex Makelaar in Nederland
Best Forex Broker in Malaysia | Broker Forex Terbaik di Malaysia
Best Forex Broker in Hong Kong
Best Forex Broker in China 中國最好的外匯經紀商
Best Forex Broker in Japan 日本で最高の外国為替ブローカー
Best Forex Broker in South Africa
Best Forex Broker in Monaco
Best Forex Broker in Vietnam | Nhà môi giới Forex tốt nhất tại Việt Nam
Best Forex Broker in South Korea | 대한민국 최고의 외환 브로커
Best Forex Broker in India | இந்தியாவில் சிறந்த அந்நிய செலாவணி ப்ரோக்கர் | भारत में सर्वश्रेष्ठ विदेशी मुद्रा ब्रोकर
Best Forex Broker in Turkey | Türkiye'nin En İyi Forex Brokerliği
Best Forex Broker in Bulgaria | Най-добър Forex брокер в България
Best Forex Broker in Slovenia | Best Forex Broker v Sloveniji
Best Forex Broker in Slovakia | Najlepší Forex Broker na Slovensku
Best Forex Broker in Romania | Cel mai bun Broker Forex din România
Best Forex Broker in Russia | Лучший Форекс Брокер в России
Best Forex Broker in Czech Republic | Nejlepší Forex Broker v České republice
Best Forex Broker in Croatia | Najbolji Forex Broker u Hrvatskoj
Best Forex Broker in Hungary | A legjobb Forex bróker Magyarországon Best Forex Broker in Persia | بهترین کارگزاری فارکس در ایران
Best Forex Broker in Saudi Arabia | أفضل وسيط فوركس في المملكة العربية السعودية
Best Forex Broker in United Arab Emirates | أفضل وسيط فوركس في الإمارات العربية المتحدة
Best Forex broker in Qatar | أفضل وسيط فوركس في قطر
Best Forex broker in Kuwait | أفضل وسيط فوركس في الكويت
Best Forex broker in Bahrain | أفضل وسيط فوركس في البحرين
Best Forex broker in Jordan | أفضل وسيط فوركس في الأردن


OPEN A DEMO ACCOUNT | OPEN A LIVE ACCOUNT


submitted by TRESORFX to u/TRESORFX [link] [comments]

How the fall in Rupee Exchange Value Impacts Your Investments?

How the fall in Rupee Exchange Value Impacts Your Investments?
The world is the most unpredictable place. Especially with a continuous change in motion, the position of any country can’t be counted as the stable position. Talking about the development process of any of any country is totally dependent on the development of the currency of its country, how the country is actually growing in different aspects with different growth factors taking place.
For instance, the growth of health conditions in the country how poor or good they are, the quality of education in the country, the rate of employment or moreover the poverty line of the country. All this depends on the value of the currency the country has, the better the currency, the better the country is.
Talking about Rupee, the situation since 1945 till now is never a stabilised one. The rupee has only tangoed all this while, deliberations on the amount of debts have just grown intensely. However, when it comes to the growth of Rupee, you’ll find nothing. Although, the past few months have been ever growing for the Rupee, one can’t ignore the fact that the fluctuations were terribly high and still are.
Thus, when the condition of the rupee is itself in a concoction, how can one expect to have a constant growth in another domain or field. Another reason one can find is the constant fluctuations in the Euro Exchange rate for the global markets that have their business standards quite trembling too. The impact of this tremble is quite visibly witnessed by many.
As known the Indian Rupee depends on the USD for its trade growth and economy development, not to forget the constant fluctuations in the Crude Prices and the Hiking highest of the Brent shows a constant change and no possible stability due to the Waiver take off by the US due to Trump’s decision can largely impact the world.
Imagine if Indian Rupee has touched an all-time low, one’s immediate reaction is to worry about the inflation and the negative impact on the finances. Stock markets have reacted negatively as foreign investors are pulling money out of emerging markets including India.

https://preview.redd.it/6dzmji4ibmy21.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a0fc0a0f904a9f35e43659c36a967444be7bc2ff
The investments will be depleted on the condition that all this will be gorged in a different shape. No high value of Rupee will result in no returns for your investments because the value of the rupee has changed totally.
As an investor, an important skill is to have an ability to connect the dots. This applies to your personal finances too. Being aware of the implication of economic developments on investments can not only help save money but also seize opportunities.
The investment of an investor depends a lot more on the fundamentals of a country and the movement of the country’s currency based on its fundamentals. While looking at our fundamentals we stand tall over them as one can see that there is no rise in the overall debt (excluding the corporate debt & NPAs.)
For instance, the daily forecast that is published on BookMyForex for every currency can help you in taking your decision in a better way. Here’s today forecast for your reference:
22 April 2019: The rupee had opened with a positive gap at 69.46 regaining through the day touching a high of 69.6175 in the afternoon. However, the strong dollar sales in the last 30 minutes allowed the rupee to later close at 69.34. The rising crude prices confuse the rupee’s recovery. Brent broke above $74.00 mark today amidst the speculations coming from the US that Trump is to discontinue the waivers on buying Iranian Oil. Situations are tough for any forecast on Rupee as there will be no political and economic decisions taken to combat the crude price hike until the election results are out by May 23rd.
submitted by bookmyforexgurgaon to u/bookmyforexgurgaon [link] [comments]

ENCRYBIT PLATFORM: TAKING CRYPTOCURRENCIES TRADING TO THE NEXT LEVEL!

ENCRYBIT PLATFORM: TAKING CRYPTOCURRENCIES TRADING TO THE NEXT LEVEL!
https://preview.redd.it/eexoxpa89m121.jpg?width=1285&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f56e4cefb2216de43dc6a5a40c140a4606387b6c

INTRODUCTION

Blockchains and cryptocurrencies were envisioned as community-oriented open-source initiatives where the participants want to have the opportunity to make useful suggestions for the way forward of cryptocurrency exchanges and blockchain at large. This has held true with the exception of dev teams that still have a significant say in the project. Often times blockchains have a leader that everyone believes in and follows, limiting the effects of the members to take part in its management when it comes to exchanges, however, it is not that big of a deal, but ENCRYBIT is a revolution that has come to stay for the betterment of the ecosystem. ENCRYBIT was born out of a shared vision to develop a more efficient global financial system.
https://preview.redd.it/j9ygqvmc9m121.jpg?width=780&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2ed895da2f833760e9c1e6378c523e444eb2e29a

The flexibility of trading in multiple cryptocurrencies where traders have say on the entire system is what interests the team members to have come up with this great idea of ENCRYBIT, but they were fed up with the inefficiencies of decentralized exchanges where users of the platform has no or little contribution to the development and progress of the platform, this led the Research team at ENCRYBIT to had conducted an online survey across many crypto traders around the world to know and be ascertain on what need urgent improvement where exchanges are concerned in this blockchain ecosystem. This means team isn’t taking decisions on their own, but traders are carried along in the development of ENCRYBIT cryptocurrency trading platform.
Its all about a modern cryptocurrency exchange, designed considering what community have asked in our recent survey and traders review.
The research team at Encrybit did very well to carry out survey which is viewed as the best way to gather opinions from traders from all over the world by conducting an online survey and below is the result gotten from the surveys that were carried out:
The security concern is still quite spread between the traders, it's quite obvious since the major hacks and scams happened in regards of exchanges, the fear of losing your funds is always there when you keep them on a trading platform. Participants responses and opinions in diagram;
https://preview.redd.it/t06kwiyf9m121.jpg?width=766&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=39a3b656fc4dd92628d6150cebf88506a9251395

Encrybit can assure traders that its platform will do its best to prevent those consequences.
In the context of this article, Encrybit being an “All You Need, All in One Page” means that Encrybit and its platform want to solve those issues, trying to give users all the tools they need, all in one single page when you need them and extremely easy to use, no switching tabs and no need of third-party platforms. It doesn't matter you're trading for fun or for work, all the trader categories will be given the chance to trade in a more relaxed and engaging way.
https://preview.redd.it/6hgm3bih9m121.jpg?width=724&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4c39b39bc38d14bfc9dec9296a115a7dcd99035c

Encrybit will provide general security to users in the following ways:
Two Factor Authentication Wallet Address Whitelisting Withdrawal Authentication Device Authentication IP Whitelisting Multi Signature Wallet Anti-Phishing Aler
Encrybit is backed up by M-Connect Solutions, a software development agency established in the year 2009. It is a software development company having expertise in banking and trading software. It has specific clients (trading software development companies) from Germany, USA, and India. They know the ins-outs of the forex exchange functionalities. They've technology, qualified resources (In-house), and experience to support the development and working of a revolutionary cryptocurrency exchange.

ROADMAP

By definition, Roadmap is a plan or strategy intended to achieve a particular goal. That is to say the ENCRYBIT Roadmap is step-by-step means by which the mission of the project is to be fully achieved.
Below is a pictorial representation of the ENCRYBIT Roadmap:
https://preview.redd.it/0vixyq9m9m121.jpg?width=936&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=12c0a4b8ea07ae495ca5d7c5b73a56db25da934b
https://preview.redd.it/eh3miuin9m121.jpg?width=951&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6486737df7f240e53cded5b0acf57094a84b5934
https://preview.redd.it/selifh7p9m121.jpg?width=855&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=64b6680f48f4dc4521eaa9438accaa356251eea0

https://preview.redd.it/s1y3hzur9m121.jpg?width=873&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=aaf17840b70a5c0df7546d824fbd0adedecfb491
The Encrybit project has very ambitious plans to conquer the market. Don't miss your chance to be a part of this project!
Get connected anytime with the Project using the links below for more information, updates and participation:
WEBSITE: https://encrybit.io/
WHITEPAPER: https://encrybit.io/pdf/encrybit-wp-v1.pdf
LITEPAPER: https://encrybit.io/pdf/litepaper.pdf
TWITTER: https://twitter.com/enbofficial
FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/encrybitofficial/

WRITER'S DETAILS
BitcoinTalk Username: cryptoblezin
BitcoinTalk Profile URL: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2178561;sa=summary
ETH Address: 0xC89b8Dd7e3E137DB108575EeAe301E52b6C72d9F
submitted by blessingsdrop to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

In case you missed it: HSBC trader found guilty of front running the spot fx market. Detailed court charts provide insight into how bank money moves markets and including actual position size/duration information.

One of the things that surprises many newbies to the forex world is that some forms of insider trading aren't illegal. Front running is the practice of taking a position with the knowledge that there is a large order coming through behind you to push the market in your favour, and it's been generally accepted that this is just the way of things in the spot market, even if it's been outlawed in futures and equities.
However, a recent landmark case means that this may no longer be the case.
Former HSBC Holdings Plc currency trader Mark Johnson was found guilty of fraud for front-running a $3.5 billion client order, a victory for U.S. prosecutors as they seek to root out misconduct in global financial markets.
He was convicted on Monday on nine of 10 fraud and conspiracy counts after a month-long trial in Brooklyn, New York.
(https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-23/ex-hsbc-currency-trader-is-convicted-of-fraud-for-front-running)
It is hard to know exactly what impact this will have on the markets, given that many traders will look at this case and note that: a) there was fall out because the HSBC desk execution acted against the interest of their client, rather than the front running per se b) there was active conspiracy with other traders c) the run was into the fix, rather than less watched times of the day.
I haven't read the case details though, so perhaps there is actual specificity against the practice. Systemic risk averse (not the same as market risk aversion) institutions may be less willing to engage in the practice, and certainly it seems to continue the push towards removing the human element altogether.
-- // --
What's even more interesting for spot traders who can't front run, is the detailed look behind the scenes that the case gives us, as it clearly outlines the actual events in the real world that translate into price movement.
Timeline of events
1) Cairn Energy PLC, an oil and gas company begin talks to sell a 51.8% share of their Cairn India subsidiary in late 2010 for $8.7 billion
2) Approval from the Indian government doesn't come through until September 2011
3) Cairn Energy place an order with HSBC to convert 3.5 billion dollars from the asset sale to pounds in December 2011
4) HSBC desk traders accumulate GBPUSD longs in anticipation of the big order
5) The desk trader responsible for putting through the 3.5 billion trade 'ramps' the order through just before the fix, all traders then close out positions.
References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairn_Energy https://www.law360.com/articles/972069/expert-tells-of-hsbc-trading-frenzy-around-3-5b-forex-deal https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-05/ex-hsbc-trader-says-boss-ordered-him-to-ramp-up-price-of-pound
-- // --
Now for those of you who are already aware that this sort of activity occurs, this isn't news, just open confirmation of what was assumed to take place.
More fascinating though are the position size and timing information, which give proper insight into market dynamics.
You should read this full article to get the best understanding: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-10/in-hsbc-currency-trade-charts-u-s-offers-its-theory-of-a-crime
-- // --
These are the charts in question:
Reuters Buying Market M5 volume chart showing HSBC share
https://i.imgur.com/bXBN2BC.jpg
For all that's said about spot forex having 'no true centralised volume' etc, this is an incredibly telling graphic of just how much a major player can dominate the interbank market and leave a very meaningful and tell-tale spike, even at the fix. Additionally that's 1.6BN notional moved in five minutes.
Prop book position sizes for HSBC London and HSBC NY
https://i.imgur.com/MhRPGWJ.jpg
https://i.imgur.com/krBztbX.jpg
There is a lot of information in these charts if you're willing to dig down into them. You can see the size of individual HSBC bank traders' positions, how much they change them, how long they hold them for, and how quickly they exit them.
It's worth nothing that the increments on the horizontal axis are 6 minutes, meaning the standard position hold length was often only in hours, with size reaching up to $70M for the NY traders.
The London traders had quite different styles, one of them running a frequently adjusting multiple small trades inside their larger position, one of them running a static short for much of the day before flipping to the long as they were alerted to the front-running opportunity.
In addition to liquidating their positions into the $3.5bn client order, many also shorted off the peak, although didn't close out in the given time period.
Actual spot price vs HSBC trader position size
https://i.imgur.com/Qc1Kart.jpg
This is particularly fascinating, because it's rare to see the spot price superimposed over the genuine very high volume buying activity.
Having looked through these charts, it's important to take a step back and think about how it all fits together: corporate activity outside of the market, leading to a major forex order, leading to the constant aggressive buying driving price up over an hour, and then the sharp position exits causing price to peak.
How you would have perceived this depends on your lens to the market. Perhaps it looked to you like a particular candle formation, maybe a test of resistance, maybe a breach of resistance. Perhaps you saw it as a big volume stomp on the DoM. Maybe it was just 'noise' (even though it represented a genuine commercial event). Maybe it formed part of harmonic, or crossed an average, triggered an automated algor entry.
But price doesn't move about for abstract reasons from minute to minute, hour to hour - it's driven by real world events that will never register on your radar, like the Cairn's Indian subsidiary sale, which then manifests when bank traders make decisions with client money and bank prop money on the side.
Whether or not this should factor into your trading depends on a combination of your personality, mental model of the market and your trading style. But new traders should always be very wary of approaches to the market that can not account for the information that can be seen about how the market operates when criminal investigations pull back the curtains.
submitted by alotmorealots to Forex [link] [comments]

Partial translation of long Chinese article regarding the recent actions of PBOC

https://www.sosobtc.com/article/24259.html
The following is a rough/partial translation of the article "Reflections on the present situation of Bitcoin and thoughts on its future" provided in the link above
Two hurricanes swept through the landscape as the summer season trails off, instead of uprooting trees and destroying houses, it ravaged through the Bitcoin markets.
In early September, Chinese authorities made an announcement banning Initial Coin Offerings (ICO), this was shortly followed by a second official statement regarding the closures of Chinese cryptocurrencies exchanges. These two statements triggered a flurry of selling off and caused a massive upheaval in cryotocurrency markets.
This author had anticipated these actions from PBOC, and was perhaps, even an unwitting instigator (in the most minor sense possible) for the current turn of events. A few days back, this author had suggested that PBOC should just shut down Bitcoin mines and exchanges in China, thus allowing an easy way out for the central bank to abscond itself of any “supervisory responsibility” over this burgeoning industry. This would also ensure that Bitcoin markets would open to develop organically in a democratic, autonomous manner, free from constant irrational interference of the Central Bank. Nevertheless this author still found it surprising that the typically indecisive PBOC would take such a drastic action within such a short time.
In the author’s opinion, there are three main factors, and three minor factors that lead to this latest decision by PBOC. Here are the 3 main reasons:
1) The increasingly unwieldy size of the Bitcoin market
First, let’s keep a few figures in mind. 1) In 2015, based on the limited amount of information available to the public; China UnionPay the crown jewel of PBOC disclosed a profit of 3.8 billion CNY, and held 66.5 billion CNY worth of assets. 2) 220 billion CNY; stamp duty revenue generated from securities issued by CSRC.
Now, consider the size of the Bitcoin industry in China. China holds approximately two thirds of Bitcoin currently in circulation, ~10 million Bitcoins. Before the most recent market upheaval, Bitcoin’s value was holding steady at around 30000 CNY (4500 USD), hence according to this approximation, Bitcoin holders in China is controlling 300 billion CNY worth of a highly liquid, easily transacted wealth that is not subjected to regulations and jurisdiction by the Central Bank and Ministry’s of Finance. In a space of a few short years, the amount of wealth held by Chinese citizens in Bitcoin has now swelled to a very significant amount that’s on the scale of annual military spending of nations such as India and Russia (55.9 billion and 69.2 billion USD respectively, estimated Bitcoin holding in China 45 billion USD (when price was at 4500 usd)
Now that the days of exponential Chinese economic growth driven by its manufacturing industry is over, various ministries are trying all sorts of different methods to promote economic growth. However, for all their efforts to promote and cultivate a new multibillion industry, their achievements pale in comparison to the Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies industry which had slipped right under their noses and is now thriving. It is easy to conjecture that the success of this new, non-government sanctioned industry is a slap in the face for archaic and control hungry Chinese party officials.
Following the runaway success of Tencent and Alibaba, two recent multibillion companies which the Chinese State failed to put their finger in, Chinese officials are now determined to nip the Bitcoin industry in its bud before it blossoms into another non-state sanction success. This vindictive and petty type of thinking is rather typical, and to be expected of the current administration.
2)Disruption of the societal hierarchy
The social hierarchy of China is still largely determined by state-owned monopolies. The distribution of public wealth and resources like real estate, mining rights, and business permits etc. are dictated by those wielding power in state enterprises. The immense wealth generated by these essentially risk free businesses is only accessible to relatives of high-ranking officials and fellow insiders, i.e an oligarchy.
However the wealth generated from the Bitcoin industry which was essentially started by a bunch of tech enthusiasts with some old computers, a few lot of GPUs, and self taught mathematical models. This completely circumvents the typical route to wealth and riches as dictated by the state, and is a threat to the way they constructed the society to be. Hence, the Bitcoin industry must be stopped and to be made an example of.
Business owners in cahoots with state officials also resents the Bitcoin industry greatly, like how they resisted e-payment systems like Alipay, WechatPay, or e-communities such as qq and Wechat initially. These business owners are essentially power brokers, where their greatest asset lies in their ability to act as an intermediary between private enterprises and the State, if new businesses no longer require the blessing of the state to prosper, then as the unofficial toll collectors would surely be starved.
3)The inequality of wealth distribution arising from the Bitcoin industry
The frontrunners and greatest benefactors of the Chinese Bitcoin industry had been young tech enthusiasts. Typically young males in their late 20s, and as the price of Bitcoin boomed, they became a very conspicuous bunch of newly rich. These quickly drew the ire of the Chinese community, “your dad isn’t some powerful Chinese tycoon or government official, what did you do to deserve to get rich so quickly!” was the unspoken sentiment of the public. As more and more stories about the overnight success of Bitcoin mining/trading enterprises received inceased media coverage across 2016, the Chinese were driven into frenzy on this new source of wealth. One portion of the public started to throw their hats into the ring, by exploiting the fact that the public by large only possess a half-baked understanding of cryptocurrencies. These newcomers posed themselves as some sort of Bitcoin sage, and immediately started advocating all sorts of altcoins and cryptocurrencies to enrich themselves.
Another portion of the public started to horde towards these so called bitcoin sages entrusting them with their hard earned money so that they can be a part of this exciting new industry. The fact that they lost money has nothing to do with the Bitcoin industry, but is solely due to the fact that they did not educate themselves properly and allowed themselves to be taken advantage of by some unscrupulous individuals.
But the largest portion the public became increasingly envious of the success achieved by the frontrunners in the Bitcoin industry, feeling that it’s too late to join the bandwagon, and angry that all these newfound wealth had completely eluded them, they began to sound their frustration, demanding the closure and banning of the new arcane industry that they had missed out on.
In recent years, financial crisis in China had always originated from State-controlled markets such as the stock exchange, Forex or the real estate industry. As the Chinese people grew increasingly distrustful of these State-controlled industries, the self-regulated Bitcoin industry emerged as shining beacon of success. The relevant authorities took note of the public dissatisfaction with Bitcoin and decided to go with the flow, assuaging public outrage while at the same time, diverting attention away from their own failures in issues such as the unaffordable real estate prices that's currently paralyzing the young Chinese community.
The aforementioned three factors are deep rooted, and would always be a core reason for the Chinese government to stamp out Bitcoin. Here are three more minor reasons, which are more circumstantial and technical in nature:
1)The contentious hard fork leading to discord among the Bitcoin community
Ever since Bitcoin splitted into Bitcoin Core and BitcoinCash, the community has grew increasingly partisan. This animosity between the two factions had damaged Bitcoin, and some people had decided to exploit this divide. The statement from James Dimon about Bitcoin being a scam was quickly picked up by Chinese officials to clamp down on Bitcoin. The credibility of his statement is dubious, seeing that JP Morgan was just as complicit as Lehman Brother’s was during the 2008 financial crisis, and really should not be calling out other people for being a scam. However, Chinese officials quickly took his words as gospel, after all enemy of an enemy is a friend. This crackdown essentially kills of the new Bitcoin blockchain advocated by the Chinese Bitcoin community (i.e Bitcoin Cash), so in a sense the state officials are modern traitors, by siding with foreigners and their view of Bitcoin.
2)Bitcoin market is still too naïve and immature
Even before the Bitcoin hardfork was concluded, exchanges started listing tokens representing BitCoin Cash for trading. This action in particular hastens the decision by Chinese authorities to clampdown on Bitcoin. This decision is simply reckless and irrational, as it lies in complete betrayal of what Bitcoin stands for. Bitcoin is the time tested, gold standard among cryptocurrencies because every single bitcoin is forged by miners, this is what that makes Bitcoin secure and distinguishes it from the many other altcoins that currently exisits. Bitcoin is more than just a currency; it has solid proof of work backing it up. By simply listing BCC tokens before they are mined. What the exchanges are doing is no different from the central bank issuing fiat currencies, and by stepping into the domain of the central bank, Bitcoin exchanges now have painted a huge bulls eye on its back
3)Too much speculators, opportunists joining the fray
In the few weeks prior to this crackdown, i.e when Bitcoin was at its all time high. Figures in the financial world that used to jeer at Bitcoin started to change their tune. They popped out like mushrooms after rain, claiming that they too want to join this exciting new industry, be it as a miner, a day trader or to start blockchain companies. In hindsight, these are clear indicators that the Bitcoin market is overheated and is due for a correction.
Three years ago, when Bitcoin was worth around 1000 CNY, it was clearly a good, underpriced product with a clear utility and huge potential for future growth, but not a lot of people were buying it. However, now that the price had climbed all the way to 30000 CNY, people are rushing to get more of it. There was clearly a bubble, and that’s why this author started exhorting for PBOC to crackdown on Bitcoin and pop the bubble.
submitted by wombatdowneyjr to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

truth about forex trading demo account - hindi By Ajaymoney Forex Market Open And Close Hour In Pakistan and India ... Why Trading Forex is so Difficult - Randomness in the ... Forex Market Session Opening & Closing Time  Forex Market ... How to Trade in Currency Market forex In हिंदी - YouTube (LIVE) Trading India  Forex & Stock Market Trading In ... Know about Forex Trading Currency Pairs  Hindi  Forex Trading Tutorials in Hindi Best Scalping Trading Strategy For Beginners  How To ... The Best Candlestick Patterns to Profit in Forex and ...

Forex trading in India cannot be done at any land-based location as the only online forex trading is available. Unlike the stock market which has opening and closing times, the forex market remains open throughout the day as traders trade currencies across all time zones, five days of the week. NSE Holiday calendar 2020- Find NSE holiday list 2020, Trading holidays, Stock Market holiday calendar on The Economic Times. Check whether the stock market is open tomorrow or not via Market Holiday Calendar 2020 Forex trading hours in India. Forex market trading is related to open and close sessions of NY, Sydney, Asia, Europe. Alright, you now have an understanding regarding the various sessions and why trading through high liquidity periods is significant. Now we can begin to understand the clock of the Forex market, including the opening and closing hours throughout the week. Usually, traders have ... CFD and Forex market hours mostly imply the operation hours of world trading markets – London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange and others. Since the markets are situated in various locations and time zones it becomes complicated to track trading hours of various instruments. Remm it is illegal to trade in Forex Markets if you are in India. If you have earned funds outside India which are held in foreign bank accounts, then surely you can use those funds to trade in Forex Markets. You cannot transfer funds from your In... Forex business hours for trading greatly differ depending upon which market is up for discussion. However, the general consensus is that the forex market technically always open. The reason for this is because the market is always active somewhere in the world. Aside from holidays, the market is open 24 hours a day somewhere in the world. Every city has a different time zone, therefore each ... Forex market has no geographical location, it is electronically linked network and is open 24 hours a day. The value for which one currency is exchanged for another or the value of one currency in terms of another currency is called exchange rate. For example, US dollar can be bought for 63 INR rupees. This is the exchange rate for Indian rupees in US dollars. The foreign exchange market in ...

[index] [13339] [8856] [27361] [28232] [26449] [25305] [9547] [25074] [9388] [24944]

truth about forex trading demo account - hindi By Ajaymoney

w to Trade in Currency Market forex In हिंदी in this Video I explain What is currency and Forex market, How to open an account in currency market how to trad... Forex Trading Is 5 Trillion Dollar Market and also risky of you Trade Forex without Learning, so before start forex trading we must need to Learn Forex Trading in the First Step. Hlo guys from this vdo i am going to show you about the timing of forex market.. When a session start and when a session close all things you will know from ... The forex market is the market in which participants can buy, sell, exchange, and speculate on currencies. The forex market is made up of banks, commercial comp... is Forex Trading legal in India? Forex Trading India में Legal है या illegal? know in detailed - Duration: 12:05. Tube Guru 20,426 views. 12:05. Our All services Free Forex ... We interview traders & educators regularly. Subscribe if you want to learn while being entertained. Please like the video and comment if you enjoyed - it... Hlo guys from this vdo i am going to show you about currency pairs of forex market.. So keep watching till end.. Keep supporting keep watching.. OctaFX Forex Broker Joining Link.. https://bit.ly ... Five Forex Session Sydney Tokyo London New Yark Frankfurt Open And Close Time. which time these session open and close in Pakistan and india local time. all ... Watch our video to discover the best scalping trading strategy that could help you become more successful when trading the Forex or stock market. The most su... The Best Candlestick Patterns to Profit in Forex and binary - For Beginners trading forex, forex strategy, forex,Online Trading Strategy #Candlestick_Pattern...

http://arab-binary-option.cinralo.gq